Conveyance Offences

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Introduction

On December 18, 2018, Part VIII.1 entitled "Offences Relating to Conveyances" was added to the Code.

Statement of Principles

Recognition and declaration

320.12 It is recognized and declared that

(a) operating a conveyance is a privilege that is subject to certain limits in the interests of public safety that include licensing, the observance of rules and sobriety;
(b) the protection of society is well served by deterring persons from operating conveyances dangerously or while their ability to operate them is impaired by alcohol or a drug, because that conduct poses a threat to the life, health and safety of Canadians;
(c) the analysis of a sample of a person’s breath by means of an approved instrument produces reliable and accurate readings of blood alcohol concentration; and
(d) an evaluation conducted by an evaluating officer is a reliable method of determining whether a person’s ability to operate a conveyance is impaired by a drug or by a combination of alcohol and a drug.

2018, c. 21, s. 15

CCC


Note up: 320.12

Offences

Procedure

Investigation of Impairment/Over 80
Prior to December 2018

Definitions

Under Part VIII.1 under "Offences Relating to Conveyances", the following definitions apply:

Interpretation
Definitions

320.11 The following definitions apply in this Part [Pt. VIII – Offences Against the Person and Reputation (s. 214 to 320.1)].

"analyst" means a person who is, or a person who is a member of a class of persons that is, designated by the Attorney General under subparagraph 320.4(b)(ii) [x] or paragraph 320.4(c) [AG Canada power to designate persons to certify alcohol standards]. (analyste)

"approved container" means a container that is designed to receive a sample of a person’s blood for analysis and that is approved by the Attorney General of Canada under paragraph 320.39(d) [AG Canada power to approve container to receive blood]. (contenant approuvé)

"approved drug screening equipment" means equipment that is designed to ascertain the presence of a drug in a person’s body and that is approved by the Attorney General of Canada under paragraph 320.39(b) [AG Canada power to approve equipment to ascertain drug in body]. (matériel de détection des drogues approuvé)

"approved instrument" means an instrument that is designed to receive and make an analysis of a sample of a person’s breath to determine their blood alcohol concentration and that is approved by the Attorney General of Canada under paragraph 320.39(c) [AG Canada power to approve instrument to analyse breath to determine BAC]. (éthylomètre approuvé)

"approved screening device" means a device that is designed to ascertain the presence of alcohol in a person’s blood and that is approved by the Attorney General of Canada under paragraph 320.39(a) [AG Canada power to approve device to ascertain blood alcohol]. (appareil de détection approuvé)

...
"evaluating officer" means a peace officer who has the qualifications prescribed by regulation that are required in order to act as an evaluating officer. (agent évaluateur)

"operate" means

(a) in respect of a motor vehicle, to drive it or to have care or control of it;
(b) in respect of a vessel or aircraft, to navigate it, to assist in its navigation or to have care or control of it; and
(c) in respect of railway equipment, to participate in the direct control of its motion, or to have care or control of it as a member of the equipment’s crew, as a person who acts in lieu of a member of the equipment’s crew by remote control, or otherwise. (conduire)

"qualified medical practitioner" means a person who is qualified under provincial law to practise medicine. (médecin qualifié)

"qualified technician" means

(a) in respect of breath samples, a person who is designated by the Attorney General under paragraph 320.4(a) [AG Canada power to designate person to operate appr. instrument]; and
(b) in respect of blood samples, a person who is, or a person who is a member of a class of persons that is, designated by the Attorney General under subparagraph 320.4(b)(i) [x]. (technicien qualifié)

...
2018, c. 21, s. 15.
[annotation(s) added]

CCC


Note up: 320.11

Conveyance

Under Part VIII.1 under "Offences Relating to Conveyances", the following definitions apply:

Interpretation
Definitions

320.11 The following definitions apply in this Part [Pt. VIII – Offences Against the Person and Reputation (s. 214 to 320.1)].

...
"conveyance" means a motor vehicle, a vessel, an aircraft or railway equipment. (moyen de transport)

...
"vessel" includes a hovercraft. (bateau) 2018, c. 21, s. 15.
[annotation(s) added]

CCC


Note up: 320.11

Under s. 2, "motor vehicle" is defined as "a vehicle that is drawn, propelled or driven by any means other than muscular power, but does not include railway equipment;" Certain vehicles, such as scooters, are powered by either pedal or motor, the crown will generally have to prove that the vehicle was being operated by motor power at the time of the offence.[1]

A vehicle that is inoperable, such as were it is out of gas, will still be a motor vehicle. It is not relevant whether the vehicle is functioning or operable.[2]

An e-bike that is not being pedaled will be a "motor vehicle" under s. 2.[3]

  1. see for example R v Rookes, 2012 SKPC 80 (CanLII), per Hinds J
  2. R v Lloyd, 1988 CanLII 5326 (SK CA) , [1988] SJ No 216 (SKCA), per Wakeling JA
    R v Saunders, 1967 CanLII 56 (SCC) , [1967] SCR 284, per Fauteux J, at p. 290
  3. R v Clifford, 2014 ONSC 2388 (CanLII), per Koke J
    R v Kulbacki, 2012 ONCJ 532 (CanLII), per Radley-Walters J
    cf. Rookes, supra

History