Extra-Territorial Jurisdiction of the Courts

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General Principles

See also: Jurisdiction of the Courts

Under s. 6, Courts of Canada have jurisdiction over criminal matters committed within the territory of Canada.[1]

The purpose of s. 6 is to recognize that the "primary basis of criminal jurisdiction is territorial".[2] States are hesitant to make "discriminate attempts to control activities that take place wholly within the boundaries" of other countries.[3]

It also reflects the "principle of sovereign integrity" where a state has "exclusive sovereignty over all persons, citizens or aliens, and all property, real or personal, with its own territory".[4]

6.
...
Offences outside Canada
(2) Subject to this Act or any other Act of Parliament, no person shall be convicted or discharged under section 730 of an offence committed outside Canada.
Definition of enactment
(3) In this section, "enactment" means

(a) an Act of Parliament, or
(b) an Act of the legislature of a province that creates an offence to which Part XXVII applies,

or any regulation made thereunder.

R.S., 1985, c. C-46, s. 6; R.S., 1985, c. 27 (1st Supp.), s. 4, c. 1 (4th Supp.), s. 18(F); 1995, c. 22, s. 10.


CCC

Section 6(2) prohibits anyone from being convicted or discharge of "an offence committed outside Canada" subject to any other Acts of Canada.[5] This requires a "real and substantial connection" between the offence and the country. A "significant portion" of the offence should take place in Canada.[6] It could also be characterized as a "meaningful" connection with the jurisdiction.[7]

It is not necessary that the particular connection be the "most real and substantial".[8]

Section 481.2 grants jurisdiction over offences occurring outside of Canada except where otherwise prevented by Acts of Parliament. This section does not provide a free-standing authority to assert jurisdiction but rather only applies in conjunction with another Act of Parliament conveying jurisdiction.[9] It states that:

Offence outside Canada
481.2 Subject to this or any other Act of Parliament, where an act or omission is committed outside Canada and the act or omission is an offence when committed outside Canada under this or any other Act of Parliament, proceedings in respect of the offence may, whether or not the accused is in Canada, be commenced, and an accused may be charged, tried and punished within any territorial division in Canada in the same manner as if the offence had been committed in that territorial division.
1996, c. 31, s. 72; 2008, c. 18, s. 10.


CCC

Probationary term can apply to the accused's conduct outside of the Country.[10]

Obedience to de facto Law of Another Country

Obedience to de facto law
15 No person shall be convicted of an offence in respect of an act or omission in obedience to the laws for the time being made and enforced by persons in de facto possession of the sovereign power in and over the place where the act or omission occurs.
R.S., c. C-34, s. 15.



  1. see s. 6
    R v Libman, 1985 CanLII 51 (SCC), [1985] 2 SCR 178
    Davidson v British Columbia (Attorney General), 2006 BCCA 447 (CanLII) at para 5
  2. Libman, supra
  3. Libman, supra
  4. R. v. Finta, 1994 CanLII 129 (SCC), [1994] 1 S.C.R. 701, at p. 806
  5. section 6(2) states "Subject to this Act or any other Act of Parliament, no person shall be convicted or discharged under section 730 of an offence committed outside Canada."
  6. Libman v The Queen, 1985 CanLII 51 (SCC), [1985] 2 SCR 178
  7. McCabe v British Columbia (Securities Commission), 2016 BCCA 7 (CanLII) at para 36
    Torudag v. British Columbia (Securities Commission), 2011 BCCA 458 (CanLII) at para. 19
  8. McCabe, supra at para 35
  9. United States of America v. Patterson, 2017 BCCA 52 (CanLII) at paras 73 to 75
  10. R v Greco, 2001 CanLII 8608 (ON CA),
    see also Breach of Undertaking, Recognizance, or Probation (Offence)
    c.f. R. v. B.(O.) (1997), 1997 CanLII 949 (ON CA), 116 C.C.C. (3d) 189 (Ont. C.A.) - accused sexually assaulted his grand-daughter while in the US. Canada had no jurisdiction to try the case

Principles Limiting Jurisdiction Outside of Canada

Sovereign Equality
The international principle of sovereign equality states that "[c]ountries generally respect each other’s borders and will not attempt to adjudicate matters that occurred within the borders of another sovereign country" and "countries will exercise jurisdiction over their own nationals but not over another country’s nationals except, of course, where that country’s nationals commit an offence within another country’s borders". [1]

Non-Intervention
In order to preserve sovereignty and equality, there is a related duty of "non-intervention" which gives each country the "right to be free from intrusion by other states in its affairs and the duty of every other state to refrain from interference."[2]

A country should not extend its jurisdiction to enforce "its laws when to do so would infringe on the sovereignty of another state".[3]

Comity
The principle of "comity" refers to the "informal acts performed and rules observed by states in their mutual relations out of, politeness, convenience and goodwill, rather than strict legal obligation".[4] It is not a binding rule of law, but rather more of a principle of interpretation based on the "deference and respect" that countries have for each other.[5]

In application, comity requires "that a state ought to assume jurisdiction only if it has a real and substantial link to the event".[6]

Comity creates the presumption that "Canada will, in passing legislation, act in compliance with its international obligations including treaty obligations" and that "courts will favour an interpretation of legislation that reflects the value and principles of international law".[7]

Real and Substantial Connection
At common law, the "real and substantial connection" test sets the limits on the assumption of jurisdiction by a court.[8]

Factors to consider in the test include:[9]

  1. the connection between the forum and the plaintiff’s claim;
  2. the connection between the forum and the defendant;
  3. unfairness to the defendant in assuming jurisdiction;
  4. unfairness to the plaintiff in not assuming jurisdiction.

Where the crown fails to establish a real and substantial connection there is some suggestion that the accused must be acquitted since the Crown failed to prove an essential element.[10]

  1. R v Chowdhury, supra at para 22
  2. R v Hape, supra at para 45
  3. Chowdhury, supra at para 34
  4. Hape, supra at para 47
  5. Chowdhury, supra at paras 31, 32
  6. Hape, supra at para 62
  7. Chowdhury, supra at para 32
  8. e.g. Muscutt v Courcelles, 2002 CanLII 44957 (ON CA)
  9. R v Milliea, 2008 NBPC 11 (CanLII) at para 28
  10. R v Finta, 1992 CanLII 2783 (ON CA)

Charter Rights Outside of Canada

The Courts have no jurisdiction to enforce Charter rights on other state's actions.[1] The rights are not enforceable due to the principle of comity.[2]

It is only where foreign state actors operate as agents of the Canadian state that the Charter can be engaged.[3]

  1. R. v. Harrer, 1995 CanLII 70 (SCC), [1995] 3 S.C.R. 562
    R. v. Terry, 1996 CanLII 199 (SCC), [1996] 2 S.C.R. 207
    R. v. Hape, 2007 SCC 26 (CanLII)
    R. v. Tan, 2014 BCCA 9 (CanLII)
    R v Mehan, 2017 BCCA 21 (CanLII) at para 28
  2. Hape at para 52
    Harrer, supra at para 15
  3. Hape, supra at paras 103 to 105

Discretionary Limitations

Forum Non Conveniens
The courts have discretion to refuse to accept jurisdiction on the basis of the principle of forum non-conveniens.[1] Criteria to consider include:[2]

  1. the residence and domicile of the parties,
  2. the location of the natural forum,
  3. the location of the evidence,
  4. the place of residence of the witnesses,
  5. the location of the alleged conduct and transaction, including the place of formation and execution of the contract,
  6. the existence of an action pending in another jurisdiction between the same parties (in an imperfect lis pendens situation) and the stage of such proceeding,
  7. the law applicable to the dispute,
  8. the ability to join all parties,
  9. the need for enforcement in the alternative court,
  10. the juridical advantages for the plaintiff, and
  11. the interests of justice.
  1. Boucher v Stelco Inc. 2005 SCC 64 (CanLII) at para 37
  2. Boucher v Stelco, ibid. at para 37 to 38
    Muscutt v Courcelles, 2002 CanLII 44957 (ON CA) at para 42

Special Cases

Offences by Public Service Employees

Section 7(4) grants jurisdiction over criminal acts of public service employees who commit indictable offences outside of Canada while employed.

7.
...
Offences by Public Service employees
(4) Every one who, while employed as an employee within the meaning of the Public Service Employment Act in a place outside Canada, commits an act or omission in that place that is an offence under the laws of that place and that, if committed in Canada, would be an offence punishable by indictment shall be deemed to have committed that act or omission in Canada.
...


CCC

Offences Against Cultural Property

Section 7(2.01) imposes jurisdiction over offences under s.322, 341,344, 380, or 434 committed outside of Canada that is "in relation to cultural property" where the accused is a citizen permanent resident or ordinarily resides in Canada.

Offences in relation to cultural property
(2.01) Despite anything in this Act or any other Act, a person who commits an act or omission outside Canada that if committed in Canada would constitute an offence under section 322, 341, 344, 380, 430 or 434 in relation to cultural property as defined in Article 1 of the Convention, or a conspiracy or an attempt to commit such an offence, or being an accessory after the fact or counselling in relation to such an offence, is deemed to have committed that act or omission in Canada if the person

(a) is a Canadian citizen;
(b) is not a citizen of any state and ordinarily resides in Canada; or
(c) is a permanent resident within the meaning of subsection 2(1) of the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act and is, after the commission of the act or omission, present in Canada.

(2.02) For the purpose of subsection (2.01), Convention means the Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict, done at The Hague on May 14, 1954. Article 1 of the Convention is set out in the schedule to the Cultural Property Export and Import Act.
...
R.S., 1985, c. C-46, s. 7; R.S., 1985, c. 27 (1st Supp.), s. 5, c. 10 (3rd Supp.), s. 1, c. 30 (3rd Supp.), s. 1, c. 1 (4th Supp.), s. 18(F); 1992, c. 1, ss. 58, 60(F); 1993, c. 7, s. 1; 1995, c. 5, s. 25; 1997, c. 16, s. 1; 1999, c. 35, s. 11; 2000, c. 24, s. 42; 2001, c. 27, s. 244, c. 41, ss. 3, 126; 2002, c. 13, s. 3; 2004, c. 12, s. 1; 2005, c. 40, s. 2; 2012, c. 1, s. 10, c. 15, s. 1; 2013, c. 9, s. 2, c. 13, s. 3; 2014, c. 25, s. 3.


Sexual Offences

See also: Sexual Assault (Offence)

Section 7(4.1) which grants jurisdiction over sexual offences[1] However, consent of the Attorney General is required.[2] committed outside of Canada by Canadian citizens or permanent residents. This section does not violate s. 7 of the Charter.[3]

7.
...
Offence in relation to sexual offences against children
(4.1) Notwithstanding anything in this Act or any other Act, every one who, outside Canada, commits an act or omission that if committed in Canada would be an offence against section 151, 152, 153, 155 or 159, subsection 160(2) or (3), section 163.1, 170, 171, 171.1, 172.1, 172.2 or 173 or subsection 286.1(2) shall be deemed to commit that act or omission in Canada if the person who commits the act or omission is a Canadian citizen or a permanent resident within the meaning of subsection 2(1) of the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act.
...
Consent of Attorney General
(4.3) Proceedings with respect to an act or omission deemed to have been committed in Canada under subsection (4.1) may only be instituted with the consent of the Attorney General.
...
R.S., 1985, c. C-46, s. 7; R.S., 1985, c. 27 (1st Supp.), s. 5, c. 10 (3rd Supp.), s. 1, c. 30 (3rd Supp.), s. 1, c. 1 (4th Supp.), s. 18(F); 1992, c. 1, ss. 58, 60(F); 1993, c. 7, s. 1; 1995, c. 5, s. 25; 1997, c. 16, s. 1; 1999, c. 35, s. 11; 2000, c. 24, s. 42; 2001, c. 27, s. 244, c. 41, ss. 3, 126; 2002, c. 13, s. 3; 2004, c. 12, s. 1; 2005, c. 40, s. 2; 2012, c. 1, s. 10, c. 15, s. 1; 2013, c. 9, s. 2, c. 13, s. 3; 2014, c. 25, s. 3.


CCC

Terrorism Offences

7.
...
Nuclear terrorism offence committed outside Canada
(2.21) Despite anything in this Act or any other Act, everyone who commits an act or omission outside Canada that if committed in Canada would constitute an offence under any of sections 82.3 to 82.6, or a conspiracy or attempt to commit such an offence, or being an accessory after the fact or counselling in relation to such an offence, is deemed to have committed that act or omission in Canada if

(a) the act or omission is committed on a ship that is registered or licensed, or for which an identification number has been issued, under any Act of Parliament;
(b) the act or omission is committed on an aircraft that
(i) is registered in Canada under regulations made under the Aeronautics Act, or
(ii) is leased without crew and operated by a person who is qualified under regulations made under the Aeronautics Act to be registered as owner of an aircraft in Canada under those regulations;
(c) the person who commits the act or omission is a Canadian citizen; or
(d) the person who commits the act or omission is, after the commission of the act or omission, present in Canada.

...
Offence relating to financing of terrorism
(3.73) Notwithstanding anything in this Act or any other Act, every one who, outside Canada, commits an act or omission that, if committed in Canada, would constitute an offence against, a conspiracy or an attempt to commit an offence against, or being an accessory after the fact or counselling in relation to an offence against, section 83.02 is deemed to commit the act or omission in Canada if

(a) the act or omission is committed on a ship that is registered or licensed, or for which an identification number has been issued, under an Act of Parliament;
(b) the act or omission is committed on an aircraft
(i) registered in Canada under regulations made under the Aeronautics Act, or
(ii) leased without crew and operated by a person who is qualified under regulations made under the Aeronautics Act to be registered as the owner of an aircraft in Canada under those regulations;
(c) the person who commits the act or omission
(i) is a Canadian citizen, or
(ii) is not a citizen of any state and ordinarily resides in Canada;
(d) the person who commits the act or omission is, after its commission, present in Canada;
(e) the act or omission is committed for the purpose of committing an act or omission referred to in paragraph 83.02(a) or (b) in order to compel the Government of Canada or of a province to do or refrain from doing any act;
(f) the act or omission is committed for the purpose of committing an act or omission referred to in paragraph 83.02(a) or (b) against a Canadian government or public facility located outside Canada; or
(g) the act or omission is committed for the purpose of committing an act or omission referred to in paragraph 83.02(a) or (b) in Canada or against a Canadian citizen.

Terrorism offence committed outside Canada
(3.74) Notwithstanding anything in this Act or any other Act, every one who commits an act or omission outside Canada that, if committed in Canada, would be a terrorism offence, other than an offence under section 83.02 or an offence referred to in paragraph (a) of the definition terrorist activity in subsection 83.01(1), is deemed to have committed that act or omission in Canada if the person

(a) is a Canadian citizen;
(b) is not a citizen of any state and ordinarily resides in Canada; or
(c) is a permanent resident within the meaning of subsection 2(1) of the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act and is, after the commission of the act or omission, present in Canada.

Terrorist activity committed outside Canada
(3.75) Notwithstanding anything in this Act or any other Act, every one who commits an act or omission outside Canada that, if committed in Canada, would be an indictable offence and would also constitute a terrorist activity referred to in paragraph (b) of the definition terrorist activity in subsection 83.01(1) is deemed to commit that act or omission in Canada if

(a) the act or omission is committed against a Canadian citizen;
(b) the act or omission is committed against a Canadian government or public facility located outside Canada; or
(c) the act or omission is committed with intent to compel the Government of Canada or of a province to do or refrain from doing any act.

(3.76) and (3.77) [Repealed, 2000, c. 24, s. 42]
...
R.S., 1985, c. C-46, s. 7; R.S., 1985, c. 27 (1st Supp.), s. 5, c. 10 (3rd Supp.), s. 1, c. 30 (3rd Supp.), s. 1, c. 1 (4th Supp.), s. 18(F); 1992, c. 1, ss. 58, 60(F); 1993, c. 7, s. 1; 1995, c. 5, s. 25; 1997, c. 16, s. 1; 1999, c. 35, s. 11; 2000, c. 24, s. 42; 2001, c. 27, s. 244, c. 41, ss. 3, 126; 2002, c. 13, s. 3; 2004, c. 12, s. 1; 2005, c. 40, s. 2; 2012, c. 1, s. 10, c. 15, s. 1; 2013, c. 9, s. 2, c. 13, s. 3; 2014, c. 25, s. 3.


Hostage Taking

Offence of hostage taking
(3.1) Notwithstanding anything in this Act or any other Act, every one who, outside Canada, commits an act or omission that if committed in Canada would be an offence against section 279.1 shall be deemed to commit that act or omission in Canada if

(a) the act or omission is committed on a ship that is registered or licensed, or for which an identification number has been issued, pursuant to any Act of Parliament;
(b) the act or omission is committed on an aircraft
(i) registered in Canada under regulations made under the Aeronautics Act, or
(ii) leased without crew and operated by a person who is qualified under regulations made under the Aeronautics Act to be registered as owner of an aircraft in Canada under such regulations;
(c) the person who commits the act or omission
(i) is a Canadian citizen, or
(ii) is not a citizen of any state and ordinarily resides in Canada;
(d) the act or omission is committed with intent to induce Her Majesty in right of Canada or of a province to commit or cause to be committed any act or omission;
(e) a person taken hostage by the act or omission is a Canadian citizen; or
(f) the person who commits the act or omission is, after the commission thereof, present in Canada.

(3.2) to (3.6) [Repealed, 2013, c. 13, s. 3]


Human Trafficking

See also: Trafficking in Persons (Offence)

7.
...
Offence in relation to trafficking in persons
(4.11) Notwithstanding anything in this Act or any other Act, every one who, outside Canada, commits an act or omission that if committed in Canada would be an offence against section 279.01, 279.011, 279.02 or 279.03 shall be deemed to commit that act or omission in Canada if the person who commits the act or omission is a Canadian citizen or a permanent resident within the meaning of subsection 2(1) of the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act.
(4.2) [Repealed, 2002, c. 13, s. 3]
...
R.S., 1985, c. C-46, s. 7; R.S., 1985, c. 27 (1st Supp.), s. 5, c. 10 (3rd Supp.), s. 1, c. 30 (3rd Supp.), s. 1, c. 1 (4th Supp.), s. 18(F); 1992, c. 1, ss. 58, 60(F); 1993, c. 7, s. 1; 1995, c. 5, s. 25; 1997, c. 16, s. 1; 1999, c. 35, s. 11; 2000, c. 24, s. 42; 2001, c. 27, s. 244, c. 41, ss. 3, 126; 2002, c. 13, s. 3; 2004, c. 12, s. 1; 2005, c. 40, s. 2; 2012, c. 1, s. 10, c. 15, s. 1; 2013, c. 9, s. 2, c. 13, s. 3; 2014, c. 25, s. 3.


Misc Circumstances

Internationally Protected Persons

See also: Definitions_of_Parties,_Persons,_and_Organizations#Internationally_Protected_Persons

7 (1) ...
Offence against internationally protected person
(3) Notwithstanding anything in this Act or any other Act, every one who, outside Canada, commits an act or omission against the person of an internationally protected person or against any property referred to in section 431 used by that person that, if committed in Canada, would be an offence against any of sections 235, 236, 266, 267, 268, 269, 269.1, 271, 272, 273, 279, 279.1, 280 to 283, 424 and 431 is deemed to commit that act or omission in Canada if

(a) the act or omission is committed on a ship that is registered or licensed, or for which an identification number has been issued, pursuant to any Act of Parliament;
(b) the act or omission is committed on an aircraft
(i) registered in Canada under regulations made under the Aeronautics Act, or
(ii) leased without crew and operated by a person who is qualified under regulations made under the Aeronautics Act to be registered as owner of an aircraft in Canada under those regulations;
(c) the person who commits the act or omission is a Canadian citizen or is, after the act or omission has been committed, present in Canada; or
(d) the act or omission is against
(i) a person who enjoys the status of an internationally protected person by virtue of the functions that person performs on behalf of Canada, or
(ii) a member of the family of a person described in subparagraph (i) who qualifies under paragraph (b) or (d) of the definition internationally protected person in section 2.

...
R.S., 1985, c. C-46, s. 7; R.S., 1985, c. 27 (1st Supp.), s. 5, c. 10 (3rd Supp.), s. 1, c. 30 (3rd Supp.), s. 1, c. 1 (4th Supp.), s. 18(F); 1992, c. 1, ss. 58, 60(F); 1993, c. 7, s. 1; 1995, c. 5, s. 25; 1997, c. 16, s. 1; 1999, c. 35, s. 11; 2000, c. 24, s. 42; 2001, c. 27, s. 244, c. 41, ss. 3, 126; 2002, c. 13, s. 3; 2004, c. 12, s. 1; 2005, c. 40, s. 2; 2012, c. 1, s. 10, c. 15, s. 1; 2013, c. 9, s. 2, c. 13, s. 3; 2014, c. 25, s. 3.


CCC

  1. listed as "section 151, 152, 153, 155 or 159, subsection 160(2) or (3), section 163.1, 170, 171, 171.1, 172.1, 172.2 or 173 or subsection 212(4)"
  2. s. 7(4.3)
  3. R v Klassen, 2008 BCSC 1762 (CanLII)

United Nations Personnel

Section 7(3.71) relates to offence against United Nations or associated personnel.

Offence against United Nations or associated personnel
(3.71) Notwithstanding anything in this Act or any other Act, every one who, outside Canada, commits an act or omission against a member of United Nations personnel or associated personnel or against property referred to in section 431.1 that, if committed in Canada, would constitute an offence against, a conspiracy or an attempt to commit an offence against, or being an accessory after the fact or counselling in relation to an offence against, section 235, 236, 266, 267, 268, 269, 269.1, 271, 272, 273, 279, 279.1, 424.1 or 431.1 is deemed to commit that act or omission in Canada if

(a) the act or omission is committed on a ship that is registered or licensed, or for which an identification number has been issued, under an Act of Parliament;
(b) the act or omission is committed on an aircraft
(i) registered in Canada under regulations made under the Aeronautics Act, or
(ii) leased without crew and operated by a person who is qualified under regulations made under the Aeronautics Act to be registered as owner of an aircraft in Canada under those regulations;
(c) the person who commits the act or omission
(i) is a Canadian citizen, or
(ii) is not a citizen of any state and ordinarily resides in Canada;
(d) the person who commits the act or omission is, after the commission of the act or omission, present in Canada;
(e) the act or omission is committed against a Canadian citizen; or
(f) the act or omission is committed with intent to compel the Government of Canada or of a province to do or refrain from doing any act.

...


Section 7(3.72) relates to offence involving explosive or other lethal device.

Offence involving explosive or other lethal device
(3.72) Notwithstanding anything in this Act or any other Act, every one who, outside Canada, commits an act or omission that, if committed in Canada, would constitute an offence against, a conspiracy or an attempt to commit an offence against, or being an accessory after the fact or counselling in relation to an offence against, section 431.2 is deemed to commit that act or omission in Canada if

(a) the act or omission is committed on a ship that is registered or licensed, or for which an identification number has been issued, under any Act of Parliament;
(b) the act or omission is committed on an aircraft
(i) registered in Canada under regulations made under the Aeronautics Act,
(ii) leased without crew and operated by a person who is qualified under regulations made under the Aeronautics Act to be registered as owner of an aircraft in Canada under those regulations, or
(iii) operated for or on behalf of the Government of Canada;
(c) the person who commits the act or omission
(i) is a Canadian citizen, or
(ii) is not a citizen of any state and ordinarily resides in Canada;
(d) the person who commits the act or omission is, after the commission of the act or omission, present in Canada;
(e) the act or omission is committed against a Canadian citizen;
(f) the act or omission is committed with intent to compel the Government of Canada or of a province to do or refrain from doing any act; or
(g) the act or omission is committed against a Canadian government or public facility located outside Canada.

...


Sections 7(5) to (11) set out the procedural requirements of deemed jurisdiction under this section.


Torture

7(1)
...
Jurisdiction
(3.7) Notwithstanding anything in this Act or any other Act, every one who, outside Canada, commits an act or omission that, if committed in Canada, would constitute an offence against, a conspiracy or an attempt to commit an offence against, being an accessory after the fact in relation to an offence against, or any counselling in relation to an offence against, section 269.1 shall be deemed to commit that act or omission in Canada if

(a) the act or omission is committed on a ship that is registered or licensed, or for which an identification number has been issued, pursuant to any Act of Parliament;
(b) the act or omission is committed on an aircraft
(i) registered in Canada under regulations made under the Aeronautics Act, or
(ii) leased without crew and operated by a person who is qualified under regulations made under the Aeronautics Act to be registered as owner of an aircraft in Canada under those regulations;
(c) the person who commits the act or omission is a Canadian citizen;
(d) the complainant is a Canadian citizen; or
(e) the person who commits the act or omission is, after the commission thereof, present in Canada.

(3.76) and (3.77) [Repealed, 2000, c. 24, s. 42] ...


Non-citizens

Any extra-territorial jurisdiction conveyed by s. 7 in relation to a non-citizen must only be applied with the consent of the Attorney General of Canada.

s. 7
...
If accused not Canadian citizen
(7) If the accused is not a Canadian citizen, no proceedings in respect of which courts have jurisdiction by virtue of this section shall be continued unless the consent of the Attorney General of Canada is obtained not later than eight days after the proceedings are commenced.
...
R.S., 1985, c. C-46, s. 7; R.S., 1985, c. 27 (1st Supp.), s. 5, c. 10 (3rd Supp.), s. 1, c. 30 (3rd Supp.), s. 1, c. 1 (4th Supp.), s. 18(F); 1992, c. 1, ss. 58, 60(F); 1993, c. 7, s. 1; 1995, c. 5, s. 25; 1997, c. 16, s. 1; 1999, c. 35, s. 11; 2000, c. 24, s. 42; 2001, c. 27, s. 244, c. 41, ss. 3, 126; 2002, c. 13, s. 3; 2004, c. 12, s. 1; 2005, c. 40, s. 2; 2012, c. 1, s. 10, c. 15, s. 1; 2013, c. 9, s. 2, c. 13, s. 3; 2014, c. 25, s. 3.


CCC

The requirement for consent from the Attorney General of Canada only applies to non-citizens who are not also permanent residents.[1]

The purpose of the requirement for consent at the beginning of the proceedings is to require the government to "consider the international implications of the prosecution of a non-citizen for an extra-territorial offence" "in order to avoid possible international relations issues".[2]

  1. R v Patel, 2016 ONCJ 172 (CanLII) at para 20
  2. Patel, ibid. at para 27

Applicable Forum for Section 7 Jurisdiction Offences

Jurisdiction
(5) Where a person is alleged to have committed an act or omission that is an offence by virtue of this section, proceedings in respect of that offence may, whether or not that person is in Canada, be commenced in any territorial division in Canada and the accused may be tried and punished in respect of that offence in the same manner as if the offence had been committed in that territorial division.
Appearance of accused at trial
(5.1) For greater certainty, the provisions of this Act relating to

(a) requirements that an accused appear at and be present during proceedings, and
(b) the exceptions to those requirements,

apply to proceedings commenced in any territorial division pursuant to subsection (5).
Where previously tried outside Canada
(6) Where a person is alleged to have committed an act or omission that is an offence by virtue of this section and that person has been tried and dealt with outside Canada in respect of the offence in such a manner that, if that person had been tried and dealt with in Canada, he would be able to plead autrefois acquit, autrefois convict or pardon, that person shall be deemed to have been so tried and dealt with in Canada. ...
R.S., 1985, c. C-46, s. 7; R.S., 1985, c. 27 (1st Supp.), s. 5, c. 10 (3rd Supp.), s. 1, c. 30 (3rd Supp.), s. 1, c. 1 (4th Supp.), s. 18(F); 1992, c. 1, ss. 58, 60(F); 1993, c. 7, s. 1; 1995, c. 5, s. 25; 1997, c. 16, s. 1; 1999, c. 35, s. 11; 2000, c. 24, s. 42; 2001, c. 27, s. 244, c. 41, ss. 3, 126; 2002, c. 13, s. 3; 2004, c. 12, s. 1; 2005, c. 40, s. 2; 2012, c. 1, s. 10, c. 15, s. 1; 2013, c. 9, s. 2, c. 13, s. 3; 2014, c. 25, s. 3.


CCC

Evidence

Certificate as evidence
(10) In any proceedings under this Act, a certificate purporting to have been issued by or under the authority of the Minister of Foreign Affairs is admissible in evidence without proof of the signature or authority of the person appearing to have signed it and, in the absence of evidence to the contrary, is proof of the facts it states that are relevant to the question of whether any person is a member of United Nations personnel, a member of associated personnel or a person who is entitled under international law to protection from attack or threat of attack against his or her person, freedom or dignity.
Idem
(11) A certificate purporting to have been issued by or under the authority of the Minister of Foreign Affairs stating

(a) that at a certain time any state was engaged in an armed conflict against Canada or was allied with Canada in an armed conflict,
(b) that at a certain time any convention, treaty or other international agreement was or was not in force and that Canada was or was not a party thereto, or
(c) that Canada agreed or did not agree to accept and apply the provisions of any convention, treaty or other international agreement in an armed conflict in which Canada was involved,

is admissible in evidence in any proceedings without proof of the signature or authority of the person appearing to have issued it, and is proof of the facts so stated. R.S., 1985, c. C-46, s. 7; R.S., 1985, c. 27 (1st Supp.), s. 5, c. 10 (3rd Supp.), s. 1, c. 30 (3rd Supp.), s. 1, c. 1 (4th Supp.), s. 18(F); 1992, c. 1, ss. 58, 60(F); 1993, c. 7, s. 1; 1995, c. 5, s. 25; 1997, c. 16, s. 1; 1999, c. 35, s. 11; 2000, c. 24, s. 42; 2001, c. 27, s. 244, c. 41, ss. 3, 126; 2002, c. 13, s. 3; 2004, c. 12, s. 1; 2005, c. 40, s. 2; 2012, c. 1, s. 10, c. 15, s. 1; 2013, c. 9, s. 2, c. 13, s. 3; 2014, c. 25, s. 3.


http://canlii.ca/t/7vf2#sec7 CCC]