History of Animal Cruelty (Offence)

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See also: Animal Cruelty (Offence)

History

Prior to 2019 Amendment

Section 445.1 was amended in 2019 by a change to the penalty.

Prior to December 13, 2018

Injuring or endangering cattle

444 (1) Every one commits an offence who wilfully

(a) kills, maims, wounds, poisons or injures cattle; or
(b) places poison in such a position that it may easily be consumed by cattle.
Punishment

(2) Every one who commits an offence under subsection (1) is guilty of

(a) an indictable offence and liable to imprisonment for a term of not more than five years; or
(b) an offence punishable on summary conviction and liable to a fine not exceeding ten thousand dollars or to imprisonment for a term of not more than eighteen months or to both.

R.S., 1985, c. C-46, s. 444; 2008, c. 12, s. 1.

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Offences against service animal under s. 445.01 were brought in on June 23, 2015 through the An Act to amend the Criminal Code (law enforcement animals, military animals and service animals), 2015, c. 34 (Bill C-35).

Prior to April 2008

Prior to April 17, 2008, the sections read:

Injuring or endangering cattle

444. Every one who wilfully

(a) kills, maims, wounds, poisons or injures cattle, or
(b) places poison in such a position that it may easily be consumed by cattle,

is guilty of an indictable offence and liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding five years.
R.S., c. C-34, s. 400.

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Injuring or endangering other animals

445. Every one who wilfully and without lawful excuse

(a) kills, maims, wounds, poisons or injures dogs, birds or animals that are not cattle and are kept for a lawful purpose, or
(b) places poison in such a position that it may easily be consumed by dogs, birds or animals that are not cattle and are kept for a lawful purpose,

is guilty of an offence punishable on summary conviction.
R.S., c. C-34, s. 401.

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Causing unnecessary suffering

446 (1) Every one commits an offence who

(a) wilfully causes or, being the owner, wilfully permits to be caused unnecessary pain, suffering or injury to an animal or a bird;
(b) by wilful neglect causes damage or injury to animals or birds while they are being driven or conveyed;
(c) being the owner or the person having the custody or control of a domestic animal or a bird or an animal or a bird wild by nature that is in captivity, abandons it in distress or wilfully neglects or fails to provide suitable and adequate food, water, shelter and care for it;
(d) in any manner encourages, aids or assists at the fighting or baiting of animals or birds;
(e) wilfully, without reasonable excuse, administers a poisonous or an injurious drug or substance to a domestic animal or bird or an animal or a bird wild by nature that is kept in captivity or, being the owner of such an animal or a bird, wilfully permits a poisonous or an injurious drug or substance to be administered to it;
(f) promotes, arranges, conducts, assists in, receives money for or takes part in any meeting, competition, exhibition, pastime, practice, display or event at or in the course of which captive birds are liberated by hand, trap, contrivance or any other means for the purpose of being shot when they are liberated; or
(g) being the owner, occupier or person in charge of any premises, permits the premises or any part thereof to be used for a purpose mentioned in paragraph (f).
Punishment

(2) Every one who commits an offence under subsection (1) is guilty of an offence punishable on summary conviction.

Failure to exercise reasonable care as evidence

(3) For the purposes of proceedings under paragraph (1)(a) or (b), evidence that a person failed to exercise reasonable care or supervision of an animal or a bird thereby causing it pain, suffering, damage or injury is, in the absence of any evidence to the contrary, proof that the pain, suffering, damage or injury was caused or was permitted to be caused wilfully or was caused by wilful neglect, as the case may be.

Presence at baiting as evidence

(4) For the purpose of proceedings under paragraph (1)(d), evidence that an accused was present at the fighting or baiting of animals or birds is, in the absence of any evidence to the contrary, proof that he encouraged, aided or assisted at the fighting or baiting.

Order of prohibition

(5) Where an accused is convicted of an offence under subsection (1), the court may, in addition to any other sentence that may be imposed for the offence, make an order prohibiting the accused from owning or having the custody or control of an animal or a bird during any period not exceeding two years.

Breach of order

(6) Every one who owns or has the custody or control of an animal or a bird while he is prohibited from doing so by reason of an order made under subsection (5) is guilty of an offence punishable on summary conviction.
R.S., c. C-34, s. 402; 1974-75-76, c. 93, s. 35.

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