Manner of Search
Where persons other than the accused have their privacy invaded during the search will be a factor in considering the reasonableness of the search.
Use of Force During Search
Section 25 governs the use of force during which a police executes their duties:
Protection of persons acting under authority
25. (1) Every one who is required or authorized by law to do anything in the administration or enforcement of the law
- (b) as a peace officer or public officer,
is, if he acts on reasonable grounds, justified in doing what he is required or authorized to do and in using as much force as is necessary for that purpose.
(2) Where a person is required or authorized by law to execute a process or to carry out a sentence, that person or any person who assists him is, if that person acts in good faith, justified in executing the process or in carrying out the sentence notwithstanding that the process or sentence is defective or that it was issued or imposed without jurisdiction or in excess of jurisdiction.
When not protected
(3) Subject to subsections (4) and (5), a person is not justified for the purposes of subsection (1) in using force that is intended or is likely to cause death or grievous bodily harm unless the person believes on reasonable grounds that it is necessary for the self-preservation of the person or the preservation of any one under that person’s protection from death or grievous bodily harm.
(4) A peace officer, and every person lawfully assisting the peace officer, is justified in using force that is intended or is likely to cause death or grievous bodily harm to a person to be arrested, if
- (a) the peace officer is proceeding lawfully to arrest, with or without warrant, the person to be arrested;
- (b) the offence for which the person is to be arrested is one for which that person may be arrested without warrant;
- (c) the person to be arrested takes flight to avoid arrest;
- (d) the peace officer or other person using the force believes on reasonable grounds that the force is necessary for the purpose of protecting the peace officer, the person lawfully assisting the peace officer or any other person from imminent or future death or grievous bodily harm; and
- (e) the flight cannot be prevented by reasonable means in a less violent manner.
R.S., 1985, c. C-46, s. 25; 1994, c. 12, s. 1.
Once it is shown that force was used, the onus shifts to the Crown to establish that s. 25 was complied with.
Section 25 intends to constrain police conduct "by the principles of proportionality, necessity and reasonableness".
Regarding use of force with respect to sentencing see State and Police Misconduct.
- R v Davis, 2013 ABCA 15 (CanLII)
Timing of Search
A search must be commenced within the time period specified by the warrant, but it need not conclude within the period specified in the warrant as long as it it completed "without unreasonable delay".
R v Woodall,  OJ No 4001 (ONCA)(*no link)
R v Butters, 2014 ONCJ 228 (CanLII) at para 46