Screening for Drugs or Alcohol

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General Principles

See also: Screening Device (Until December 13, 2018)
Testing for presence of alcohol or drug

320.27 (1) If a peace officer has reasonable grounds to suspect that a person has alcohol or a drug in their body and that the person has, within the preceding three hours, operated a conveyance, the peace officer may, by demand, require the person to comply with the requirements of either or both of paragraphs (a) and (b) in the case of alcohol or with the requirements of either or both of paragraphs (a) and (c) in the case of a drug:

(a) to immediately perform the physical coordination tests prescribed by regulation and to accompany the peace officer for that purpose;
(b) to immediately provide the samples of breath that, in the peace officer’s opinion, are necessary to enable a proper analysis to be made by means of an approved screening device and to accompany the peace officer for that purpose;
(c) to immediately provide the samples of a bodily substance that, in the peace officer’s opinion, are necessary to enable a proper analysis to be made by means of approved drug screening equipment and to accompany the peace officer for that purpose.
Mandatory alcohol screening

(2) ...
2018, c. 21, s. 15.

CCC


Note up: 320.27(1)

No Obligation

Screening tools are optional to the officer based on the circumstances of the observations. Where the officer is sufficiently satisfied there are grounds without use of screening devices, they do not need to use them.[1]

Mandatory Alcohol Screening

320.27 (1)
...

Mandatory alcohol screening

(2) If a peace officer has in his or her possession an approved screening device, the peace officer may, in the course of the lawful exercise of powers under an Act of Parliament or an Act of a provincial legislature or arising at common law, by demand, require the person who is operating a motor vehicle to immediately provide the samples of breath that, in the peace officer’s opinion, are necessary to enable a proper analysis to be made by means of that device and to accompany the peace officer for that purpose.

2018, c. 21, s. 15.

CCC


Note up: 320.27(2)

The officer may make an MAS demand where:

  1. they are in "possession of an approved screening device"
  2. they are "in the course of the lawful exercise of [police] powers", whether federal, provincial or common law;
  3. the suspect "is operating a motor vehicle"

The satisfaction of these requirements means that they must "accompany the peace officer" for the purpose of "immediately provid[ing] the samples of breath" that are "necessary to enable a proper analysis"

  1. R v Beaudry, 2007 SCC 5 (CanLII, per Charron J, at para 45