Difference between revisions of "Aboriginal Sentencing Principles and Factors"

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''R v Kakekagamick'', [http://canlii.ca/t/1p52k 2006 CanLII 28549] (ON CA), [2006] OJ No 3346 (C.A.){{perONCA|LaForme JA}} <br>
 
''R v Kakekagamick'', [http://canlii.ca/t/1p52k 2006 CanLII 28549] (ON CA), [2006] OJ No 3346 (C.A.){{perONCA|LaForme JA}} <br>
 
</ref>
 
</ref>
It "suggests that there is something different about aboriginal offenders which may specifically make imprisonment a less appropriate or less useful sanction."<ref>{{supra1|Gladue}}{{at|37}}</ref>
+
It "suggests that there is something different about aboriginal offenders which may specifically make imprisonment a less appropriate or less useful sanction."<ref>
 +
{{supra1|Gladue}}{{atL|37|http://canlii.ca/t/1fqp2}}
 +
</ref>
  
The section is in part an attempt at providing a form of affirmative action under s. 15(2) of the Charter, but not to the extent of providing an automatic deduction of sentence.<ref>{{supra1|Gladue}}{{at|88}}</ref>
+
The section is in part an attempt at providing a form of affirmative action under s. 15(2) of the Charter, but not to the extent of providing an automatic deduction of sentence.<ref>
 +
{{supra1|Gladue}}{{atL|88|http://canlii.ca/t/1fqp2}}</ref>
  
 
Courts are required to take judicial notice of that Aboriginals have a long-standing disadvantage in Canadian society.<ref>
 
Courts are required to take judicial notice of that Aboriginals have a long-standing disadvantage in Canadian society.<ref>
Line 19: Line 22:
  
 
; Imposition of Incarceration
 
; Imposition of Incarceration
The court must consider whether imprisonment to denounce or deter "would be meaningful to the community of which the offender is a member."<ref>{{supra1|Gladue}}{{at|69}}</ref>
+
The court must consider whether imprisonment to denounce or deter "would be meaningful to the community of which the offender is a member."<ref>
 +
{{supra1|Gladue}}{{atL|69|http://canlii.ca/t/1fqp2}}</ref>
  
 
Sentencing for aboriginal offenders will tend to take a more restorative approach to sentencing.<ref>
 
Sentencing for aboriginal offenders will tend to take a more restorative approach to sentencing.<ref>
Line 30: Line 34:
 
; Sentence Reductions
 
; Sentence Reductions
 
The fact that a person is aboriginal does not automatically warrant a reduction in sentence. The aboriginal factor must be considered among other factors as well and its impact will vary from case-to-case.<ref>
 
The fact that a person is aboriginal does not automatically warrant a reduction in sentence. The aboriginal factor must be considered among other factors as well and its impact will vary from case-to-case.<ref>
{{supra1|Gladue}}{{at|88}}</ref>
+
{{supra1|Gladue}}{{atL|88|http://canlii.ca/t/1fqp2}}</ref>
  
The aboriginal sentencing factors (or "Gladue" factors) will play a role in all offences by aboriginal offenders, no matter how serious.<ref>{{supra1|Ipeelee}}</ref> However, the factors will play less of a role for the most serious offences where the emphasis must be on the protection of the public, denunciation and deterrence.<ref>{{supra1|Gladue}}{{at|78}}<br>
+
The aboriginal sentencing factors (or "Gladue" factors) will play a role in all offences by aboriginal offenders, no matter how serious.<ref>{{supra1|Ipeelee}}</ref> However, the factors will play less of a role for the most serious offences where the emphasis must be on the protection of the public, denunciation and deterrence.<ref>
 +
{{supra1|Gladue}}{{atL|78|http://canlii.ca/t/1fqp2}}<br>
 
''R v Harry'', [http://canlii.ca/t/g2jt6  2013 MBCA 108] (CanLII), 303 Man.R. (2d) 39{{perMBCA|Hamilton JA}}<br>
 
''R v Harry'', [http://canlii.ca/t/g2jt6  2013 MBCA 108] (CanLII), 303 Man.R. (2d) 39{{perMBCA|Hamilton JA}}<br>
 
</ref>
 
</ref>
  
 
Where imprisonment is necessary, the length may be less due to the aboriginal heritage factors, but where the offence is "more violence and serious" it is "more likely" that the terms of imprisonment will be close to or the same length as a non-aboriginal offender. <ref>
 
Where imprisonment is necessary, the length may be less due to the aboriginal heritage factors, but where the offence is "more violence and serious" it is "more likely" that the terms of imprisonment will be close to or the same length as a non-aboriginal offender. <ref>
{{supra1|Gladue}}{{at|79}}<br>
+
{{supra1|Gladue}}{{atL|79|http://canlii.ca/t/1fqp2}}<br>
 
''R v Carrière'', [http://canlii.ca/t/1db3w 2002 CanLII 41803] (ON CA){{TheCourtONCA}}<br>
 
''R v Carrière'', [http://canlii.ca/t/1db3w 2002 CanLII 41803] (ON CA){{TheCourtONCA}}<br>
 
''R v Jacko'', [http://canlii.ca/t/2b6nq 2010 ONCA 452] (CanLII){{perONCA|Watt JA}}
 
''R v Jacko'', [http://canlii.ca/t/2b6nq 2010 ONCA 452] (CanLII){{perONCA|Watt JA}}
Line 54: Line 59:
 
{{seealso|Pre-Sentence Reports}}
 
{{seealso|Pre-Sentence Reports}}
  
In sentencing aboriginal offenders, the sentencing judge must:<ref>''R v Laboucane'', [http://canlii.ca/t/gs1d5 2016 ABCA 176] (CanLII){{TheCourtABCA}}{{at|5}}</ref>
+
In sentencing aboriginal offenders, the sentencing judge must:<ref>
# consider "Gladue factors" unless the offender "expressly waives the right" to have them considered;<ref>{{supra1|Ipeelee}}{{at|60}}</ref> and
+
''R v Laboucane'', [http://canlii.ca/t/gs1d5 2016 ABCA 176] (CanLII){{TheCourtABCA}}{{atL|5|http://canlii.ca/t/gs1d5}}<br>
 +
</ref>
 +
# consider "Gladue factors" unless the offender "expressly waives the right" to have them considered;<ref>
 +
''R v Ipeelee'', [http://canlii.ca/t/fqq00 2012 SCC 13] (CanLII){{perSCC|LeBel J}}{{atL|60|http://canlii.ca/t/fqq00}}
 +
</ref> and
 
# provide "transparent and understandable reasons" as to how, if at all, the "identified Gladue factors impacted" the sentence.
 
# provide "transparent and understandable reasons" as to how, if at all, the "identified Gladue factors impacted" the sentence.
  
 
This duty requires the judge to "address explicitly an aboriginal offender's circumstances, and the systemic and background factors that contributed to those circumstances".<ref>
 
This duty requires the judge to "address explicitly an aboriginal offender's circumstances, and the systemic and background factors that contributed to those circumstances".<ref>
''R v Napesis'', [http://canlii.ca/t/gldmz 2015 ABCA 308] (CanLII){{TheCourtABCA}}{{at|8}}<br>
+
''R v Napesis'', [http://canlii.ca/t/gldmz 2015 ABCA 308] (CanLII){{TheCourtABCA}}{{atL|8|http://canlii.ca/t/gldmz}}<br>
 
</ref>
 
</ref>
  
 
; Purpose of s. 718.2(e)
 
; Purpose of s. 718.2(e)
 
The purpose of s. 718.2(e) is the "identification of relevant factors" of the offender's aboriginal heritage that may have played a part in bringing the particular offender".<ref>
 
The purpose of s. 718.2(e) is the "identification of relevant factors" of the offender's aboriginal heritage that may have played a part in bringing the particular offender".<ref>
{{supra1|Laboucane}}{{at|67}}<br>
+
{{supra1|Laboucane}}{{atL|67|http://canlii.ca/t/gs1d5}}<br>
 
</ref>
 
</ref>
  
 
The factors are not to work as "an excuse or justification for the criminal conduct."  They "provide the necessary context to enable a judge to determine an appropriate sentence".<ref>
 
The factors are not to work as "an excuse or justification for the criminal conduct."  They "provide the necessary context to enable a judge to determine an appropriate sentence".<ref>
{{supra1|Laboucane}}{{at|71}}<br>
+
{{supra1|Laboucane}}{{atL|71|http://canlii.ca/t/gs1d5}}<br>
{{supra1|Ipeelee}}{{at|83}}<br>
+
{{supra1|Ipeelee}}{{atL|83|http://canlii.ca/t/fqq00}}<br>
 
</ref>
 
</ref>
  
 
; When Factors Apply
 
; When Factors Apply
 
The mere assertion of aboriginal heritage is not sufficient to engage s. 718.2(e). As otherwise, it would create a "race-based discount on sentence".<ref>
 
The mere assertion of aboriginal heritage is not sufficient to engage s. 718.2(e). As otherwise, it would create a "race-based discount on sentence".<ref>
{{supra1|Ipeelee}}{{at|75}}
+
{{supra1|Ipeelee}}{{atL|75|http://canlii.ca/t/fqq00}}
 
</ref>
 
</ref>
 
It is also insufficient to merely point to the "systemic and background factors affecting Aboriginal people in Canadian society".<ref>
 
It is also insufficient to merely point to the "systemic and background factors affecting Aboriginal people in Canadian society".<ref>
''R v FHL'', 2018 ONCA 83 (CanLII){{fix}}{{at|39}}
+
''R v L(FH)'', [http://canlii.ca/t/hq2qs 2018 ONCA 83] (CanLII){{perONCA|Epstein  JA}}{{atL|39|http://canlii.ca/t/hq2qs}}
 
</ref>
 
</ref>
  
 
The factors apply to all offences, no matter how serious they may be.<ref>
 
The factors apply to all offences, no matter how serious they may be.<ref>
{{supra1|Ipeelee}}{{at|84}}<br>
+
{{supra1|Ipeelee}}{{atL|84|http://canlii.ca/t/fqq00}}<br>
{{supra1|Gladue}}{{at|79}}<br>
+
{{supra1|Gladue}}{{atL|79|http://canlii.ca/t/1fqp2}}<br>
 
''R v Wells'', [http://canlii.ca/t/527n 2000 SCC 10] (CanLII){{perSCC|Iacobucci J}}{{atsL|42-44|http://canlii.ca/t/527n#par42}}<br>
 
''R v Wells'', [http://canlii.ca/t/527n 2000 SCC 10] (CanLII){{perSCC|Iacobucci J}}{{atsL|42-44|http://canlii.ca/t/527n#par42}}<br>
{{supra1|Laboucane}}{{at|63}}<br>
+
{{supra1|Laboucane}}{{atL|63|http://canlii.ca/t/gs1d5}}<br>
 
</ref>
 
</ref>
  
 
Gladue factors are only "one of a group of factors that can affect the level of moral blameworthiness". <ref>
 
Gladue factors are only "one of a group of factors that can affect the level of moral blameworthiness". <ref>
''R v Assiniboine'', [http://canlii.ca/t/gr89z 2016 SKQB 149] (CanLII){{perSKQB|Danyliuk J}}{{at|74}}<br>
+
''R v Assiniboine'', [http://canlii.ca/t/gr89z 2016 SKQB 149] (CanLII){{perSKQB|Danyliuk J}}{{atL|74|http://canlii.ca/t/gr89z}}<br>
 
</ref>
 
</ref>
  
 
Gladue does not "create an entire new system of sentencing" for aboriginal offenders.<ref>
 
Gladue does not "create an entire new system of sentencing" for aboriginal offenders.<ref>
Assiniboine {{at|78}}<br>
+
{{ibid1|Assiniboine}}{{atL|78|http://canlii.ca/t/gr89z}}<br>
''R v Chanalquay'', [http://canlii.ca/t/gmndg 2015 SKCA 141] (CanLII){{perSKCA|Richards CJ}}{{at|42}}<br>
+
''R v Chanalquay'', [http://canlii.ca/t/gmndg 2015 SKCA 141] (CanLII){{perSKCA|Richards CJ}}{{atL|42|http://canlii.ca/t/gmndg}}<br>
 
</ref>
 
</ref>
  
 
There is no "easily ascertained or articulated" test to determine when background should influence the ultimate sentence.<Ref>
 
There is no "easily ascertained or articulated" test to determine when background should influence the ultimate sentence.<Ref>
{{supra1|FHL}}{{at|38}}<Br>
+
{{supra1|L(FH)}}{{atL|38|http://canlii.ca/t/hq2qs}}<Br>
''R v Whitehead'', 2016 SKCA 165 (CanLII), 344 CCC (3d) 1{{at|60}}{{fix}}<Br>
+
''R v Whitehead'', [http://canlii.ca/t/gwqcg 2016 SKCA 165] (CanLII), 344 CCC (3d) 1{{perSKCA|Caldwell JA}}{{atL|60|http://canlii.ca/t/gwqcg}}<Br>
 
</ref>
 
</ref>
  
 
; Linking Factors to Offence
 
; Linking Factors to Offence
 
There is no need of proving a "causal connection" between the offence and the accused's aboriginal background.<ref>
 
There is no need of proving a "causal connection" between the offence and the accused's aboriginal background.<ref>
{{supra1|FHL}}{{at|38}} ("The law, reviewed above, is clear. In order to be relevant to sentencing, an offender’s Aboriginal background need not be causally connected to the offence(s) for which a sentence is being imposed.")<br>
+
{{supra1|L(FH)}}{{atL|38|http://canlii.ca/t/hq2qs}} ("The law, reviewed above, is clear. In order to be relevant to sentencing, an offender’s Aboriginal background need not be causally connected to the offence(s) for which a sentence is being imposed.")<br>
 
''R v Collins'', [http://canlii.ca/t/fkdrs 2011 ONCA 182] (CanLII), [2011] OJ No 978 (Ont. C.A.){{perONCA|Rosenberg JA}}{{atL|32|http://canlii.ca/t/fkdrs}} ("There is nothing in the governing authorities that places the burden of persuasion on an Aboriginal accused to establish a causal link between the systemic and background factors and commission of the offence.")<br>
 
''R v Collins'', [http://canlii.ca/t/fkdrs 2011 ONCA 182] (CanLII), [2011] OJ No 978 (Ont. C.A.){{perONCA|Rosenberg JA}}{{atL|32|http://canlii.ca/t/fkdrs}} ("There is nothing in the governing authorities that places the burden of persuasion on an Aboriginal accused to establish a causal link between the systemic and background factors and commission of the offence.")<br>
{{supra1|Ipeelee}}{{at|83}}<br>
+
{{supra1|Ipeelee}}{{atL|83|http://canlii.ca/t/fqq00}}<br>
{{supra1|Laboucane}}{{at|63}}<br>
+
{{supra1|Laboucane}}{{atL|63|http://canlii.ca/t/gs1d5}}<br>
 
</ref>
 
</ref>
 
There is no need to "draw a straight line" between their roots and the offence.<Ref>
 
There is no need to "draw a straight line" between their roots and the offence.<Ref>
{{supra1|FHL}}{{at|38}}<Br>
+
{{supra1|L(FH)}}{{atL|38|http://canlii.ca/t/hq2qs}}<Br>
 
''R v Monckton'', [http://canlii.ca/t/h42q4 2017 ONCA 450] (CanLII), 349 CCC (3d) 90{{perONCA|Trotter JA}}{{atL|115|http://canlii.ca/t/h42q4}}<Br>
 
''R v Monckton'', [http://canlii.ca/t/h42q4 2017 ONCA 450] (CanLII), 349 CCC (3d) 90{{perONCA|Trotter JA}}{{atL|115|http://canlii.ca/t/h42q4}}<Br>
 
</ref>
 
</ref>
  
 
The only linkage needed is by considering which factors "may have played a part in bringing the particular offender before the courts".<ref>
 
The only linkage needed is by considering which factors "may have played a part in bringing the particular offender before the courts".<ref>
{{supra1|Gladue}}{{at|69}}<br>
+
{{supra1|Gladue}}{{atL|69|http://canlii.ca/t/1fqp2}}<br>
{{supra1|Laboucane}}{{at|63}}<br>
+
{{supra1|Laboucane}}{{atL|63|http://canlii.ca/t/gs1d5}}<br>
 
</ref>
 
</ref>
  
 
; Burden
 
; Burden
 
The offender does not have any burden of persuasion.<ref>
 
The offender does not have any burden of persuasion.<ref>
{{supra1|Laboucane}}{{at|63}}
+
{{supra1|Laboucane}}{{atL|63|http://canlii.ca/t/gs1d5}}
 
</ref>
 
</ref>
 
The judge must consider all factors "which may have played a part in bringing the particular offender before the courts".<ref>
 
The judge must consider all factors "which may have played a part in bringing the particular offender before the courts".<ref>
{{supra1|Laboucane}}{{at|63}}<br>
+
{{supra1|Laboucane}}{{atL|63|http://canlii.ca/t/gs1d5}}<br>
{{supra1|Gladue}}{{at|69}}<br>
+
{{supra1|Gladue}}{{atL|69|http://canlii.ca/t/1fqp2}}<br>
 
</ref>
 
</ref>
  
 
; Effect of Factors
 
; Effect of Factors
 
Where Gladue factors are identified they "will not dictate an automatic reduction in the sentence".<ref>
 
Where Gladue factors are identified they "will not dictate an automatic reduction in the sentence".<ref>
{{supra1|Laboucane}}{{ats|2, 63}}<br>
+
{{supra1|Laboucane}}{{atsL|2, 63|http://canlii.ca/t/gs1d5#par2}}<br>
{{supra1|Ipeelee}}{{at|74}}<br>
+
{{supra1|Ipeelee}}{{atL|74|http://canlii.ca/t/fqq00}}<br>
 
''R v Holloway'', [http://canlii.ca/t/g623h 2014 ABCA 87] (CanLII){{perABCA|Berger JA}}{{atL|42|http://canlii.ca/t/g623h}}<br>
 
''R v Holloway'', [http://canlii.ca/t/g623h 2014 ABCA 87] (CanLII){{perABCA|Berger JA}}{{atL|42|http://canlii.ca/t/g623h}}<br>
 
''R v Popowich'', [http://canlii.ca/t/fx5km 2013 ABCA 149] (CanLII){{perABCA|Berger JA}}{{atL|24|http://canlii.ca/t/fx5km}}<br>
 
''R v Popowich'', [http://canlii.ca/t/fx5km 2013 ABCA 149] (CanLII){{perABCA|Berger JA}}{{atL|24|http://canlii.ca/t/fx5km}}<br>
Line 138: Line 147:
 
</ref>
 
</ref>
 
The factors "do not operate as an excuse or justification for the criminal conduct. Rather, they provide the necessary context to enable a judge to determine an appropriate sentence".<ref>
 
The factors "do not operate as an excuse or justification for the criminal conduct. Rather, they provide the necessary context to enable a judge to determine an appropriate sentence".<ref>
{{supra1|Ipeelee}}{{at|83}}<br>
+
{{supra1|Ipeelee}}{{atL|83|http://canlii.ca/t/fqq00}}<br>
{{supra1|Laboucane}}{{at|63}}<br>
+
{{supra1|Laboucane}}{{atL|63|http://canlii.ca/t/gs1d5}}<br>
 
</ref>
 
</ref>
  
 
The factors will only have an impact on penalty where "the unique circumstances of the particular offender bear on his or her culpability for the offence or indicate which sentencing objectives can and should be actualized".<ref>
 
The factors will only have an impact on penalty where "the unique circumstances of the particular offender bear on his or her culpability for the offence or indicate which sentencing objectives can and should be actualized".<ref>
{{supra1|Ipeelee}}{{at|83}}<br>
+
{{supra1|Ipeelee}}{{atL|83|http://canlii.ca/t/fqq00}}<br>
{{supra1|Laboucane}}{{at|63}}<br>
+
{{supra1|Laboucane}}{{atL|63|http://canlii.ca/t/gs1d5}}<br>
 
</ref>
 
</ref>
  
 
; Considerations
 
; Considerations
 
The aboriginal heritage factors must be considered in light of how they may have played a part in bringing the accused before the Court.<ref>
 
The aboriginal heritage factors must be considered in light of how they may have played a part in bringing the accused before the Court.<ref>
''R v Gladue'', [http://canlii.ca/t/1fqp2 1999 CanLII 679] (SCC), [1999] 1 SCR 688{{perSCC|Cory and Iacobucci JJ}}{{at|69}}</ref>
+
''R v Gladue'', [http://canlii.ca/t/1fqp2 1999 CanLII 679] (SCC), [1999] 1 SCR 688{{perSCC|Cory and Iacobucci JJ}}{{atL|69|http://canlii.ca/t/1fqp2}}</ref>
 
There is no discretion on whether to consider these factors. They must be considered in every sentencing hearing relating to an aboriginal offender.<ref>
 
There is no discretion on whether to consider these factors. They must be considered in every sentencing hearing relating to an aboriginal offender.<ref>
{{supra1|Laboucane}}{{at|63}}<br>
+
{{supra1|Laboucane}}{{atL|63|http://canlii.ca/t/gs1d5}}<br>
 
</ref>
 
</ref>
 
Failure to undertake the duty to apply Gladue principles to an aboriginal offender is a reverseable error.<ref>
 
Failure to undertake the duty to apply Gladue principles to an aboriginal offender is a reverseable error.<ref>
{{supra1|Ipeelee}}{{at|87}}<br>
+
{{supra1|Ipeelee}}{{atL|87|http://canlii.ca/t/fqq00}}<br>
{{supra1|Laboucane}}{{at|63}}<br>
+
{{supra1|Laboucane}}{{atL|63|http://canlii.ca/t/gs1d5}}<br>
 
</ref>
 
</ref>
  
 
The Court must consider:<ref>
 
The Court must consider:<ref>
''R v Ipeelee'', [http://canlii.ca/t/fqq00 2012 SCC 13] (CanLII){{perSCC|LeBel J}}{{ats|73, 74}}<br>
+
{{supra1|Ipeelee}}{{atsL|73, 74|http://canlii.ca/t/fqq00#par73}}<br>
 
{{supra1|Kakekagamick}}<br>
 
{{supra1|Kakekagamick}}<br>
 
</ref>
 
</ref>
Line 165: Line 174:
 
#the effectiveness of the sentencing by looking at the types of sentencing procedures and sanctions which may be appropriate in the circumstances of the offender because of his or her particular aboriginal heritage or connection.
 
#the effectiveness of the sentencing by looking at the types of sentencing procedures and sanctions which may be appropriate in the circumstances of the offender because of his or her particular aboriginal heritage or connection.
  
The systemic factors can be evinced in the following statistics:<ref>{{supra1|Ipeelee}}{{ats|57, 60}}</ref>
+
The systemic factors can be evinced in the following statistics:<ref>
 +
{{supra1|Ipeelee}}{{atsL|57, 60|http://canlii.ca/t/fqq00#57}}<br>
 +
</ref>
 
*In 1988, aboriginal persons were only 2 percent of the national population but 10 percent of federal inmates
 
*In 1988, aboriginal persons were only 2 percent of the national population but 10 percent of federal inmates
 
*In some provinces, 32 percent of the federal inmates were aboriginal persons
 
*In some provinces, 32 percent of the federal inmates were aboriginal persons
 
*In one province, 60 percent of the provincial inmates were aboriginal persons
 
*In one province, 60 percent of the provincial inmates were aboriginal persons
  
Despite the disproportionate numbers of imprisoned aboriginals, courts are ''not'' to artificially reduce the aboriginal prison population for its own sake.<ref>{{supra1|Ipeelee}}{{at|75}}</ref>
+
Despite the disproportionate numbers of imprisoned aboriginals, courts are ''not'' to artificially reduce the aboriginal prison population for its own sake.<ref>
 +
{{supra1|Ipeelee}}{{atL|75|http://canlii.ca/t/fqq00}}<br>
 +
</ref>
  
 
The aboriginal heritage factors include:<ref>
 
The aboriginal heritage factors include:<ref>
Line 189: Line 202:
 
* witness to violence
 
* witness to violence
  
Courts must take judicial notice of the "history of colonialism, displacement and residential schools" and how it has translated to lower education and income, and higher rates of unemployment, suicide and incarceration.<ref>{{supra1|Ipeelee}}{{at|60}}</ref>
+
Courts must take judicial notice of the "history of colonialism, displacement and residential schools" and how it has translated to lower education and income, and higher rates of unemployment, suicide and incarceration.<ref>{{supra1|Ipeelee}}{{atL|60|http://canlii.ca/t/fqq00}}</ref>
  
 
Factors such as poverty, substance abuse, lack of education, loneliness, community fragmentation, and the lack of employment opportunities" create an unbalanced ratio of imprisonment of aboriginal offenders.<ref>
 
Factors such as poverty, substance abuse, lack of education, loneliness, community fragmentation, and the lack of employment opportunities" create an unbalanced ratio of imprisonment of aboriginal offenders.<ref>
{{supra1|Gladue}}{{Ats|65, 67}}</ref>
+
{{supra1|Gladue}}{{AtsL|65, 67|http://canlii.ca/t/1fqp2#par65}}</ref>
  
 
{{Reflist|2}}
 
{{Reflist|2}}

Revision as of 17:17, 14 August 2019

General Principles

Section 718.2(e) requires sentencing judges to take into account an offender's aboriginal status. It states that "[a] court that imposes a sentence shall also take into consideration...all available sanctions other than imprisonment that are reasonable in the circumstances should be considered for all offenders, with particular attention to the circumstances of aboriginal offenders."[1]

This provision imposes a different approach to sentencing for aboriginal offenders.[2] It "suggests that there is something different about aboriginal offenders which may specifically make imprisonment a less appropriate or less useful sanction."[3]

The section is in part an attempt at providing a form of affirmative action under s. 15(2) of the Charter, but not to the extent of providing an automatic deduction of sentence.[4]

Courts are required to take judicial notice of that Aboriginals have a long-standing disadvantage in Canadian society.[5]

Imposition of Incarceration

The court must consider whether imprisonment to denounce or deter "would be meaningful to the community of which the offender is a member."[6]

Sentencing for aboriginal offenders will tend to take a more restorative approach to sentencing.[7] Denunciation and deterrence can still play a part in sentencing as it is important to the community associated with the offender. [8]

Sentence Reductions

The fact that a person is aboriginal does not automatically warrant a reduction in sentence. The aboriginal factor must be considered among other factors as well and its impact will vary from case-to-case.[9]

The aboriginal sentencing factors (or "Gladue" factors) will play a role in all offences by aboriginal offenders, no matter how serious.[10] However, the factors will play less of a role for the most serious offences where the emphasis must be on the protection of the public, denunciation and deterrence.[11]

Where imprisonment is necessary, the length may be less due to the aboriginal heritage factors, but where the offence is "more violence and serious" it is "more likely" that the terms of imprisonment will be close to or the same length as a non-aboriginal offender. [12]

Non-Aboriginal Disadvantaged Groups

The principles under s. 718.2(e) do not apply analogously to other historically disadvantaged groups including African-Canadians.[13] But issues of race, gender, and poverty can still be considered as mitigating factors.[14]

  1. see s. 718.2(e)states "718.2 A court that imposes a sentence shall also take into consideration the following principles:...(e) all available sanctions, other than imprisonment, that are reasonable in the circumstances and consistent with the harm done to victims or to the community should be considered for all offenders, with particular attention to the circumstances of Aboriginal offenders."
    First recognized for aboriginal offenders in R v Gladue, 1999 CanLII 679 (SCC), [1999] 1 SCR 688, per Cory and Iacobucci JJ
  2. Gladue, ibid.
    R v Ipeelee, 2012 SCC 13 (CanLII), per LeBel J, at 74#parhttp://canlii.ca/t/fqq00#par73 paras http://canlii.ca/t/fqq00#par73{{{3}}}
    R v Kakekagamick, 2006 CanLII 28549 (ON CA), [2006] OJ No 3346 (C.A.), per LaForme JA
  3. Gladue, supra, at para http://canlii.ca/t/1fqp2
  4. Gladue, supra, at para http://canlii.ca/t/1fqp2
  5. Ipeelee, supra
  6. Gladue, supra, at para http://canlii.ca/t/1fqp2
  7. R v Wells, 2000 SCC 10 (CanLII), [2000] 1 SCR 207, per Iacobucci J
  8. Wells, ibid.
  9. Gladue, supra, at para http://canlii.ca/t/1fqp2
  10. Ipeelee, supra
  11. Gladue, supra, at para http://canlii.ca/t/1fqp2
    R v Harry, 2013 MBCA 108 (CanLII), 303 Man.R. (2d) 39, per Hamilton JA
  12. Gladue, supra, at para http://canlii.ca/t/1fqp2
    R v Carrière, 2002 CanLII 41803 (ON CA), per curiam
    R v Jacko, 2010 ONCA 452 (CanLII), per Watt JA
  13. R v Borde, 2003 CanLII 4187 (ON CA), per Rosenberg JA
  14. R v Hamilton, 2004 CanLII 5549 (ON CA), per Doherty JA overturning 2003 CanLII 2862 (ON SC), per Hill J

Aboriginal Sentencing Factors ("Gladue" Factors)

See also: Pre-Sentence Reports

In sentencing aboriginal offenders, the sentencing judge must:[1]

  1. consider "Gladue factors" unless the offender "expressly waives the right" to have them considered;[2] and
  2. provide "transparent and understandable reasons" as to how, if at all, the "identified Gladue factors impacted" the sentence.

This duty requires the judge to "address explicitly an aboriginal offender's circumstances, and the systemic and background factors that contributed to those circumstances".[3]

Purpose of s. 718.2(e)

The purpose of s. 718.2(e) is the "identification of relevant factors" of the offender's aboriginal heritage that may have played a part in bringing the particular offender".[4]

The factors are not to work as "an excuse or justification for the criminal conduct." They "provide the necessary context to enable a judge to determine an appropriate sentence".[5]

When Factors Apply

The mere assertion of aboriginal heritage is not sufficient to engage s. 718.2(e). As otherwise, it would create a "race-based discount on sentence".[6] It is also insufficient to merely point to the "systemic and background factors affecting Aboriginal people in Canadian society".[7]

The factors apply to all offences, no matter how serious they may be.[8]

Gladue factors are only "one of a group of factors that can affect the level of moral blameworthiness". [9]

Gladue does not "create an entire new system of sentencing" for aboriginal offenders.[10]

There is no "easily ascertained or articulated" test to determine when background should influence the ultimate sentence.[11]

Linking Factors to Offence

There is no need of proving a "causal connection" between the offence and the accused's aboriginal background.[12] There is no need to "draw a straight line" between their roots and the offence.[13]

The only linkage needed is by considering which factors "may have played a part in bringing the particular offender before the courts".[14]

Burden

The offender does not have any burden of persuasion.[15] The judge must consider all factors "which may have played a part in bringing the particular offender before the courts".[16]

Effect of Factors

Where Gladue factors are identified they "will not dictate an automatic reduction in the sentence".[17] The factors "do not operate as an excuse or justification for the criminal conduct. Rather, they provide the necessary context to enable a judge to determine an appropriate sentence".[18]

The factors will only have an impact on penalty where "the unique circumstances of the particular offender bear on his or her culpability for the offence or indicate which sentencing objectives can and should be actualized".[19]

Considerations

The aboriginal heritage factors must be considered in light of how they may have played a part in bringing the accused before the Court.[20] There is no discretion on whether to consider these factors. They must be considered in every sentencing hearing relating to an aboriginal offender.[21] Failure to undertake the duty to apply Gladue principles to an aboriginal offender is a reverseable error.[22]

The Court must consider:[23]

  1. the unique systemic or background factors which may have played a part in bringing the particular aboriginal offender before the Courts (such as systemic disadvantages, discrimination and other factors) and
  2. the effectiveness of the sentencing by looking at the types of sentencing procedures and sanctions which may be appropriate in the circumstances of the offender because of his or her particular aboriginal heritage or connection.

The systemic factors can be evinced in the following statistics:[24]

  • In 1988, aboriginal persons were only 2 percent of the national population but 10 percent of federal inmates
  • In some provinces, 32 percent of the federal inmates were aboriginal persons
  • In one province, 60 percent of the provincial inmates were aboriginal persons

Despite the disproportionate numbers of imprisoned aboriginals, courts are not to artificially reduce the aboriginal prison population for its own sake.[25]

The aboriginal heritage factors include:[26]

  • family circumstances
  • support network
  • residential schools
  • unemployment
  • lack of educational opportunities
  • dislocation from aboriginal communities, loneliness and community fragmentation
  • family involvement in a criminal environment
  • loss of identity, culture and ancestral knowledge
  • substance abuse
  • poverty
  • racism
  • abuse
  • witness to violence

Courts must take judicial notice of the "history of colonialism, displacement and residential schools" and how it has translated to lower education and income, and higher rates of unemployment, suicide and incarceration.[27]

Factors such as poverty, substance abuse, lack of education, loneliness, community fragmentation, and the lack of employment opportunities" create an unbalanced ratio of imprisonment of aboriginal offenders.[28]

  1. R v Laboucane, 2016 ABCA 176 (CanLII), per curiam, at para http://canlii.ca/t/gs1d5
  2. R v Ipeelee, 2012 SCC 13 (CanLII), per LeBel J, at para http://canlii.ca/t/fqq00
  3. R v Napesis, 2015 ABCA 308 (CanLII), per curiam, at para http://canlii.ca/t/gldmz
  4. Laboucane, supra, at para http://canlii.ca/t/gs1d5
  5. Laboucane, supra, at para http://canlii.ca/t/gs1d5
    Ipeelee, supra, at para http://canlii.ca/t/fqq00
  6. Ipeelee, supra, at para http://canlii.ca/t/fqq00
  7. R v L(FH), 2018 ONCA 83 (CanLII), per Epstein JA, at para http://canlii.ca/t/hq2qs
  8. Ipeelee, supra, at para http://canlii.ca/t/fqq00
    Gladue, supra, at para http://canlii.ca/t/1fqp2
    R v Wells, 2000 SCC 10 (CanLII), per Iacobucci J, at paras http://canlii.ca/t/527n#par42{{{3}}}
    Laboucane, supra, at para http://canlii.ca/t/gs1d5
  9. R v Assiniboine, 2016 SKQB 149 (CanLII), per Danyliuk J, at para http://canlii.ca/t/gr89z
  10. Assiniboine, ibid., at para http://canlii.ca/t/gr89z
    R v Chanalquay, 2015 SKCA 141 (CanLII), per Richards CJ, at para http://canlii.ca/t/gmndg
  11. L(FH), supra, at para http://canlii.ca/t/hq2qs
    R v Whitehead, 2016 SKCA 165 (CanLII), 344 CCC (3d) 1, per Caldwell JA, at para http://canlii.ca/t/gwqcg
  12. L(FH), supra, at para http://canlii.ca/t/hq2qs ("The law, reviewed above, is clear. In order to be relevant to sentencing, an offender’s Aboriginal background need not be causally connected to the offence(s) for which a sentence is being imposed.")
    R v Collins, 2011 ONCA 182 (CanLII), [2011] OJ No 978 (Ont. C.A.), per Rosenberg JA, at para http://canlii.ca/t/fkdrs ("There is nothing in the governing authorities that places the burden of persuasion on an Aboriginal accused to establish a causal link between the systemic and background factors and commission of the offence.")
    Ipeelee, supra, at para http://canlii.ca/t/fqq00
    Laboucane, supra, at para http://canlii.ca/t/gs1d5
  13. L(FH), supra, at para http://canlii.ca/t/hq2qs
    R v Monckton, 2017 ONCA 450 (CanLII), 349 CCC (3d) 90, per Trotter JA, at para http://canlii.ca/t/h42q4
  14. Gladue, supra, at para http://canlii.ca/t/1fqp2
    Laboucane, supra, at para http://canlii.ca/t/gs1d5
  15. Laboucane, supra, at para http://canlii.ca/t/gs1d5
  16. Laboucane, supra, at para http://canlii.ca/t/gs1d5
    Gladue, supra, at para http://canlii.ca/t/1fqp2
  17. Laboucane, supra, at 63#parhttp://canlii.ca/t/gs1d5#par2 paras http://canlii.ca/t/gs1d5#par2{{{3}}}
    Ipeelee, supra, at para http://canlii.ca/t/fqq00
    R v Holloway, 2014 ABCA 87 (CanLII), per Berger JA, at para http://canlii.ca/t/g623h
    R v Popowich, 2013 ABCA 149 (CanLII), per Berger JA, at para http://canlii.ca/t/fx5km
    R v Guimond, 2016 MBCA 18 (CanLII), per Mainella JA, at paras http://canlii.ca/t/gn95m#par6{{{3}}}
    R v Johnny, 2016 BCCA 61 (CanLII), per Newbury JA, at para http://canlii.ca/t/gnb50 (“The fact that the sentencing judge was required to consider s 718.2(e) does not mean she was to ignore the effects of the offender’s conduct on his community ... or on the various individuals who have suffered and continue to suffer as a result of” the offence)
    cf. R v Kreko, 2016 ONCA 367 (CanLII), per Pardu JA
  18. Ipeelee, supra, at para http://canlii.ca/t/fqq00
    Laboucane, supra, at para http://canlii.ca/t/gs1d5
  19. Ipeelee, supra, at para http://canlii.ca/t/fqq00
    Laboucane, supra, at para http://canlii.ca/t/gs1d5
  20. R v Gladue, 1999 CanLII 679 (SCC), [1999] 1 SCR 688, per Cory and Iacobucci JJ, at para http://canlii.ca/t/1fqp2
  21. Laboucane, supra, at para http://canlii.ca/t/gs1d5
  22. Ipeelee, supra, at para http://canlii.ca/t/fqq00
    Laboucane, supra, at para http://canlii.ca/t/gs1d5
  23. Ipeelee, supra, at 74#parhttp://canlii.ca/t/fqq00#par73 paras http://canlii.ca/t/fqq00#par73{{{3}}}
    Kakekagamick, supra
  24. Ipeelee, supra, at 60#parhttp://canlii.ca/t/fqq00#57 paras http://canlii.ca/t/fqq00#57{{{3}}}
  25. Ipeelee, supra, at para http://canlii.ca/t/fqq00
  26. Gladue, supra
  27. Ipeelee, supra, at para http://canlii.ca/t/fqq00
  28. Gladue, supra, at 67#parhttp://canlii.ca/t/1fqp2#par65 paras http://canlii.ca/t/1fqp2#par65{{{3}}}

See Also