Difference between revisions of "Refusal (Offence)"

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(4) A person who is convicted of an offence under this section is not to be convicted of another offence under this section with respect to the same transaction.
 
(4) A person who is convicted of an offence under this section is not to be convicted of another offence under this section with respect to the same transaction.
  
2018, c. 21, s. 15.
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{{LegHistory|2018, c. 21, s. 15.}}
 
|[{{CCCSec|320.15}} CCC]
 
|[{{CCCSec|320.15}} CCC]
 
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...<br>
 
...<br>
2018, c. 21, s. 15.
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|[{{CCCSec|320.19}} CCC]
 
|[{{CCCSec|320.19}} CCC]
 
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:(c) if the offence is punishable on summary conviction, to imprisonment for a term of not more than two years less a day.
 
:(c) if the offence is punishable on summary conviction, to imprisonment for a term of not more than two years less a day.
  
2018, c. 21, s. 15.
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{{LegHistory|2018, c. 21, s. 15.}}
 
|[{{CCCSec|320.21}} CCC]
 
|[{{CCCSec|320.21}} CCC]
 
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:(c) for each subsequent offence, imprisonment for a term of 120 days.
 
:(c) for each subsequent offence, imprisonment for a term of 120 days.
  
2018, c. 21, s. 15.
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{{LegHistory|2018, c. 21, s. 15.}}
 
|[{{CCCSec|320.21}} CCC]
 
|[{{CCCSec|320.21}} CCC]
 
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Latest revision as of 13:04, 10 July 2019


Refusal
s. 320.15 of the Crim. Code
Election / Plea
Crown Election Hybrid
summary proceedings must initiate within 6 months of the offence (786(2))
Jurisdiction Prov. Court

Sup. Court w/ Jury (*)
Sup. Court w/ Judge-alone (*)

* Must be indictable. Preliminary inquiry also available.
Types of Release Release by Officer, Officer-in-charge, or Judge
Summary Dispositions
Avail. Disp. Discharge (730)

Suspended Sentence (731(1)(a))
Fine (734)
Fine + Probation (731(1)(b))
Jail (718.3, 787)
Jail + Probation (731(1)(b))
Jail + Fine (734)

Conditional Sentence (742.1)
Minimum None
Maximum 2 years less a day
Indictable Dispositions
Avail. Disp. same as summary
Minimum None
Maximum 10 years incarceration
Reference
Offence Elements
Sentence Digests

Overview

Offences relating to refusal are found in Part VIII.1 of the Criminal Code concerning "Offences Relating to Conveyances".

Pleadings
Offence
Section
Offence
Type
Crown Election Defence Election
s. 536(2)
s. 320.15 [refusal] Hybrid Offence(s) Yes Yes, if Crown proceeds by Indictment

Offences under s. 320.15 [refusal] are hybrid with a Crown election. If prosecuted by indictment, there is a Defence election of Court under s. 536(2).

Release
Offence(s) Attendance Notice
Without Arrest

s. 496
Summons
Without Arrest
s. 497
Release By
Arresting Officer
On Attendance Notice
s. 497
Release By
Officer-in-Charge
On a Promise to Appear
Undertaking or Recognizance
s. 498
Release By
a Judge or Justice
on a PTA, Undertaking or Recog.

s. 515
Direct to Attend
for Fingerprints, etc.
Identification of Criminals Act

s. 2 ID Crim. Act
s. 320.15 [refusal] OK Symbol.png OK Symbol.png OK Symbol.png OK Symbol.png OK Symbol.png OK Symbol.png

When charged under s. 320.15 [refusal] , the accused can be given an attendance notice without arrest under s. 496 or a summons. If arrested, he can be released by the arresting officer under s. 497 on an attendance notice or by an officer-in-charge under s. 498 on a promise to appear or recognizance. He can also be released by a justice under s. 515.

Reverse Onus Bail

If police decide to bring the accused before a Justice pursuant to s. 503, there will be a presumption against bail (i.e. a reverse onus) if the offence, prosecuted by indictment, was committed:

  • while at large under s. 515 [bail release], 679 or 680 [release pending appeal or review of appeal] (s. 515(6)(a)(i));
  • "for the benefit of, at the direction of, or in association" with a criminal organization (s. 515(6)(a)(ii));
  • where the offence involved a firearm, cross-bow, prohibited weapon restricted weapon, prohibited device, ammunition, prohibited ammunition or explosive substance, while the accused was subject to a prohibition order preventing possession of these items (s. 515(6)(a)(viii)); or
  • where the accused is not "ordinarily a resident in Canada" (s. 515(6)(b)).
Fingeprints and Photos

A peace officer who charges a person under s. 320.15 [refusal] of the Code can require that person to attend for the taking of fingerprints, photographs or other similar recordings that are used to identify them under the Identification of Criminals Act.

Publication Bans

For all criminal or regulatory prosecutions, there is a discretionary general publication ban available on application of the Crown, victim or witness to prohibit the publishing of "any information that could identify the victim or witness" under s. 486.5(1) where it is "necessary" for the "proper administration of justice". Other available publication bans include prohibitions for publishing evidence or other information arising from a bail hearing (s. 517), preliminary inquiry (s. 539) or jury trial (s. 648). There is a mandatory publication ban in all youth prosecutions on information tending to identify young accused under s. 110 of the YCJA or young victims under s. 111 of the YCJA.

Offence Designations
Offence(s) Wiretap
Eligible

s. 183
Dangerous Offender
Designated Offence

s. 752
Serious Personal
Injury Offence

s. 752
AG Consent Required
s. 320.15 [refusal] X Mark Symbol.png X Mark Symbol.png X Mark Symbol.png X Mark Symbol.png

See below in Ancillary Sentencing Orders for details on designations relating to sentencing orders.

Offence Wording

Failure or refusal to comply with demand

320.15 (1) Everyone commits an offence who, knowing that a demand has been made, fails or refuses to comply, without reasonable excuse, with a demand made under section 320.27 or 320.28.

Accident resulting in bodily harm

(2) Everyone commits an offence who commits an offence under subsection (1) and who, at the time of the failure or refusal, knows that, or is reckless as to whether, they were involved in an accident that resulted in bodily harm to another person.

Accident resulting in death

(3) Everyone commits an offence who commits an offence under subsection (1) and who, at the time of the failure or refusal, knows that, or is reckless as to whether, they were involved in an accident that resulted in the death of another person or in bodily harm to another person whose death ensues.

Only one conviction

(4) A person who is convicted of an offence under this section is not to be convicted of another offence under this section with respect to the same transaction.

2018, c. 21, s. 15.


CCC

Punishment

320.19 (1) Everyone who commits an offence under subsection 320.14(1) or 320.15(1) [refusal] is liable on conviction on indictment or on summary conviction

(a) to the following minimum punishment, namely,
(i) for a first offence, a fine of $1,000,
(ii) for a second offence, imprisonment for a term of 30 days, and
(iii) for each subsequent offence, imprisonment for a term of 120 days;
(b) if the offence is prosecuted by indictment, to imprisonment for a term of not more than 10 years; and
(c) if the offence is punishable on summary conviction, to imprisonment for a term of not more than two years less a day.

...

Minimum fine — subsection 320.15(1)

(4) Despite subparagraph (1)(a)(i), everyone who commits an offence under subsection 320.15(1) is liable, for a first offence, to a fine of not less than $2,000.

...
2018, c. 21, s. 15.


CCC

Punishment in case of bodily harm

320.2 Everyone who commits an offence under subsection 320.13(2) [Dangerous operation causing bodily harm], 320.14(2) [Impaired operation causing bodily harm], 320.15(2) [refusal where collision results in bodily harm] or 320.16(2) [fail to stop at accident resulting in bodily harm] is liable on conviction on indictment or on summary conviction

(a) to the following minimum punishment, namely,
(i) for a first offence, a fine of $1,000,
(ii) for a second offence, imprisonment for a term of 30 days, and
(iii) for each subsequent offence, imprisonment for a term of 120 days;
(b) if the offence is prosecuted by indictment, to imprisonment for a term of not more than 14 years; and
(c) if the offence is punishable on summary conviction, to imprisonment for a term of not more than two years less a day.

2018, c. 21, s. 15.


CCC

Punishment in case of death

320.21 Everyone who commits an offence under subsection 320.13(3) [Dangerous operation causing death], 320.14(3) [Impaired operation causing death], 320.15(3) [refusal where collision results in death] or 320.16(3) [fail to stop at accident resulting in death] is liable on conviction on indictment to imprisonment for life and to a minimum punishment of,

(a) for a first offence, a fine of $1,000;
(b) for a second offence, imprisonment for a term of 30 days; and
(c) for each subsequent offence, imprisonment for a term of 120 days.

2018, c. 21, s. 15.


CCC

Proof of the Offence

Proving driving while prohibited under s. 320.15 should include:

  1. identity of accused as culprit
  2. date and time of incident
  3. jurisdiction (incl. region and province)

Interpretation of the Offence

Participation of Third Parties

See also: Role of the Victim and Third Parties and Testimonial Aids for Young, Disabled or Vulnerable Witnesses
Testimonial Aids

Certain persons who testify are entitled to make application for the use of testimonial aids: Exclusion of Public (s. 486), Use of a Testimonial Screen (s. 486), Access to Support Person While Testifying (s. 486.1), Close Proximity Video-link Testimony (s. 486.2), Self-Represented Cross-Examination Prohibition Order (s. 486.3), and Witness Security Order (s. 486.7).

A witness, victim or complainant may also request publication bans (s. 486.4, 486.5) and/or a Witness Identity Non-disclosure Order (s. 486.31). See also, Publication Bans, above.

On Finding of Guilt

Under s. 738, a judge must inquire from the Crown before sentencing whether "reasonable steps have been taken to provide the victims with an opportunity to indicate whether they are seeking restitution for their losses and damages".

Under s. 722(2), the judge must inquire "[a]s soon as feasible" before sentencing with the Crown "if reasonable steps have been taken to provide the victim with an opportunity to prepare" a victim impact statement. This will include any person "who has suffered, or is alleged to have suffered, physical or emotional harm, property damage or economic loss" as a result of the offence. Individuals representing a community impacted by the crime may file a statement under s. 722.2.

Sentencing Principles and Ranges

See also: Purpose and Principles of Sentencing, Sentencing Factors Relating to the Offender, and Sentencing Factors Relating to the Offence
Maximum Penalties
Offence(s) Crown
Election
Maximum Penalty
s. 320.15 [refusal] Summary Election Two years less a day
s. 320.15 [refusal] Indictable Election 10 years custody

Offences under s. 320.15 [refusal] are hybrid. If prosecuted by indictment, the maximum penalty is 10 years incarceration. If prosecuted by summary conviction, the maximum penalty is Two years less a day.

Minimum Penalties

These offences have no mandatory minimum penalties.

Available Dispositions
Offence(s) Crown
Election
Discharge
s. 730
Suspended
Sentence

s. 731(1)(a)
Stand-alone
Fine

s. 731(1)(b)
Custody
s. 718.3, 787
Custody and
Probation
s. 731(1)(b)
Custody and
Fine
s. 734
Conditional
Sentence
(CSO)
s. 742.1
s. 320.15 [refusal] any OK Symbol.png OK Symbol.png OK Symbol.png OK Symbol.png OK Symbol.png OK Symbol.png OK Symbol.png

All dispositions are available.The judge may order a discharge (s. 730), suspended sentence (s. 731(1)(a)), fine (s. 731(1)(b)), custody (s. 718.3, 787), custody with probation (s. 731(1)(b)), custody with a fine (s. 734), or a conditional sentence (s. 742.1).

Consecutive Sentences

There are no statutory requirements that the sentences be consecutive.

Earlier and subsequent offences

320.26 In determining, for the purpose of imposing a sentence for an offence under subsection 320.14(1) [operation while impaired] or 320.15(1) [Failure or refusal to comply with demand], whether the offence is a second, third or subsequent offence, any of the following offences for which the offender was previously convicted is considered to be an earlier offence:

(a) an offence under any of subsections 320.14(1) to (3) or section 320.15; or
(b) an offence under any of sections 253, 254 and 255, as those sections read from time to time before the day on which this section comes into force.

2018, c. 21, s. 15.


CCC

Principles


Factors

Aggravating circumstances for sentencing purposes

320.22 A court imposing a sentence for an offence under any of sections 320.13 to 320.18 [all conveyance offences] shall consider, in addition to any other aggravating circumstances, the following:

(a) the commission of the offence resulted in bodily harm to, or the death of, more than one person;
(b) the offender was operating a motor vehicle in a race with at least one other motor vehicle or in a contest of speed, on a street, road or highway or in another public place;
(c) a person under the age of 16 years was a passenger in the conveyance operated by the offender;
(d) the offender was being remunerated for operating the conveyance;
(e) the offender’s blood alcohol concentration at the time of committing the offence was equal to or exceeded 120 mg of alcohol in 100 mL of blood;
(f) the offender was operating a large motor vehicle; and
(g) the offender was not permitted, under a federal or provincial Act, to operate the conveyance.

2018, c. 21, s. 15.


CCC

Ranges

Ancillary Sentencing Orders

See also: Ancillary Orders
Offence-specific Orders
General Sentencing Orders
Order Conviction Description
Non-communication order while offender in custody (s. 743.21) any The judge has the discretion to order that the offender be prohibited "from communicating...with any victim, witness or other person" while in custody except where the judge "considers [it] necessary" to communicate with them.
Restitution Orders (s. 738) any A discretionary Order is available for things such as the replacement value of the property; the pecuniary damages incurred from harm, expenses fleeing a domestic partner; or certain expenses arising from the commission of an offence under s.402.2 or 403.
Victim Fine Surcharge (s. 737) any A discretionary surcharge under s. 737 of 30% of any fine order imposed, $100 per summary conviction or $200 per indictable conviction. If the offence occurs on or after October 23, 2013, the order has smaller minimum amounts (15%, $50, or $100).
General Forfeiture Orders
Forfeiture Conviction Description
Forfeiture of Proceeds of Crime (s. 462.37(1) or (2.01)) any Where there is a finding of guilt for an indictable offence under the Code or the CDSA in which property is "proceeds of crime" and offence was "committed in relation to that property", the property shall be forfeited to Her Majesty the Queen on application of the Crown.
Fine in Lieu of Forfeiture (s. 462.37(3)) any Where a Court is satisfied an order for the forfeiture of proceeds of crime under s. 462.37(1) or (2.01) can be made, but that property cannot be "made subject to an order", then the Court "may" order a fine in "an amount equal to the value of the property". Failure to pay the fine will result in a default judgement imposing a period of incarceration.
Forfeiture of Weapons or Firearms (s. 491) any Where there is finding of guilt for an offence where a "weapon, an imitation firearm, a prohibited device, any ammunition, any prohibited ammunition or an explosive substance was used in the commission of [the] offence and that thing has been seized and detained", or "that a person has committed an offence that involves, or the subject-matter of which is, a firearm, a cross-bow, a prohibited weapon, a restricted weapon, a prohibited device, ammunition, prohibited ammunition or an explosive substance has been seized and detained, that the item be an enumerated weapon or related item be connected to the offence", then there will be a mandatory forfeiture order. However, under s. 491(2), if the lawful owner "was not a party to the offence" and the judge has "no reasonable grounds to believe that the thing would or might be used in the commission of an offence", then it should be returned to the lawful owner.
Forfeiture of Offence-related Property (s. 490.1) any Where there is a finding of guilt for an indictable offence, "any property is offence-related property" where (a) by means or in respect of which an indictable offence under this Act or the Corruption of Foreign Public Officials Act is committed, (b) that is used in any manner in connection with the commission of such an offence, or (c) that is intended to be used for committing such an offence". Such property is to be forfeited to Her Majesty in right of the province.


History

See also: List of Criminal Code Amendments

See Also

References