The law vests a "peace officer" with a number of powers and immunities, including the powers relating to detention, arrest, search, and seizure.
"Peace Officer" is defined under s. 2:
The definition of "peace officer" within the Code "serves only to grant additional powers to enforce the criminal law to persons who must otherwise operate within the limits of their statutory or common law sources of authority".
The list in s. 2 is not comprehensive and can include other persons not listed in the section.
- Professions That are Not Peace Officers
Peace officers do not include:
- a private bailiff
- municipal by-law enforcement officer
- an off-duty young offender corrections officer
This does not mean that these professions cannot be peace officers. It only means that unless they are specifically made peace officers under other legislation they will not be definition fit into the definition of "peace officer" under s. 2 of the Code.
Provincial and federal acts will appoint persons to be "peace officers" within the meaning of the Criminal Code. In these cases, this designation will be limited to Criminal Code peace officer powers while the officer is in execution of duties under the enabling Act and not pursuant to Criminal Code offences. When doing anything outside of the enabling legislation they are considered civilians.
R v Nolan, 1987 CanLII 66 (SCC),  1 SCR 1212, per Dickson CJ, at para 20
R v Burns, 2002 MBCA 161 (CanLII), per Twaddle JA, at paras 8 to 10
R c Boisseau, 1981 CanLII 2538 (QC CM),  R.L. 155, per Léger J - superior court bailiff
R v Laramee (1972), 9 CCC (2d) 433 (N.W.T. Mag. Ct.), 1972 CanLII 1365 (NWT TC), per De Weert CJ cited in R v Parsons, 2001 ABQB 42 (CanLII), per McMahon J, at para 14
- R v Pillipow, 2003 SKQB 49 (CanLII), per Rothery J
see e.g. R v Beaman,  SCR 445, 1963 CanLII 73 (SCC), per Ritchie J
Wright v The Queen, 1973 CanLII 858 (SK QB),  6 W.W.R. 687 (Sask.), per Maher J
R v Ingram, 1974 CanLII 985 (SK CA), 1974 CarswellSask 79,  5 W.W.R. 759, 18 CCC (2d) 200, per Culliton CJ
R v Thibeault, 2007 NBCA 67 (CanLII), per Drapeau CJ, at para 15
A customs officer or excise officer is a peace officer under s. 2(d) when conducting duties under the Customs Act. Sections 163.4 and 163.5 of the Customs Act authorizes customs officers to have the same powers as a peace officer under the Criminal Code in a limited context.
Other Members of Law Enforcement Agencies
A traffic patrol officer can be a peace officer.
A police constable under s. 44 of the Railway Safety Act is a peace officer.
A "special constable" is a peace officer only for the limited purpose of their mandate, which can include participating in the execution of a search warrant.
Other Members of Municipal Organizations
A pound-keeper can be a peace officer.
An animal control officer is only an officer for the limited purpose of "enforcing animal control legislation".
- R v Moore,  5 W.W.R. 176(*no CanLII links)
R v Jones and Huber,  5 W.W.R. 97, (Yukon Mag. Ct.)(*no CanLII links)
Across many provinces, game wardens, conservation officers and wildlife officers can be a peace officer within the meaning of s. 2(c) of the Code when enforcing enabling provincial legislation.
R v Beaman,  SCR 445, 1963 CanLII 73 (SCC), per Ritchie J - a game warden under the Game Act (NB)
R v Jones,  5 W.W.R. 97, 30 C.R.N.S. 127 (Y.T.)(*no CanLII links) - peace officer under s. 2(c)
R v Rutt, 1981 CanLII 2083 (SK CA), (1981), 59 CCC (2d) 147, per Culliton JA - conservation officer under the Wildlife Act (Sask)
R v Rushton, (1981), 62 CCC (2d) 403 (N.B.C.A.), 1981 CanLII 3156 (NB CA), per Hughes CJ - game warden
R v Goy (1969), 5 C.R.N.S. 385, 67 W.W.R. 375(*no CanLII links) - wardens appointed under the wildlife act is a peace officer
R v Cook, 2006 SKPC 41 (CanLII), per Tucker J
Only under s. 2(g)(ii), and not s. 2(g)(i), is a military police officer is a peace officer.
Military police may make a breath demand to a civilian present on a military base.
A military police officer does not have authority outside of the base to deal with civilians.
R v Bryden, 1995 CanLII 4542 (NS SC), (1995), 13 M.V.R. (3d) 89, 139 N.S.R. (2d) 131, 397 A.P.R. 131, per MacDonald J
R v Nolan,  1 SCR 1212, 1987 CanLII 66 (SCC), per Dickson CJ
R v Haynes, 1994 CanLII 4160 (NS CA), per Freedman JA
R v Harvey, 1979 ABCA 275 (CanLII), per Clement JA
R v Smith, 1982 CanLII 358 (BC CA), per Hinkson JA
R v Cogswell (1979), 2 M.V.R. 34,  NBJ No. 31 (N.B.C.A.)(*no CanLII links)
- Smith, supra
Aboriginal and First Nations Officers
Aboriginal police are governed by provincial police acts.
A special constable appointed under the Police Act to serve as a band constable. This does not mean they are "police officers" within the meaning of the provincial Police Acts. </ref> A first nations constable may be authorized as a "peace officer" outside of the territorial limits of the reserve based on their enabling legislation. The scope of power is determined by their "specified duties" as set out in the legislation, regulations, policing agreement, and terms of appointment.
First nations peacekeepers are not peace officers.
s. 87 of the Police Act (NS)
s. 38 of the Police Act (NB)
R v Whiskeyjack, 1984 ABCA 336 (CanLII), per Prowse JA
R v Stephens, 1995 CanLII 626 (ON CA), per Finlayson JA
- R v Decorte, 2003 CanLII 57434 (ON CA), per curiam, appealed to  1 SCR 133, 2005 SCC 9 (CanLII), per Fish J - related to a RIDE stop performed by the special constable just outside territorial limits of the reserve.
- Decorte, ibid.
- R v Suggashie, 2012 ONSC 2292 (CanLII), per Fregeau J, at paras 22 to 29