Notice and Service of Documents
[omitted (1), (2), (3), (4) and (5)]
- Proof of notifications and service of documents
(6) For the purposes of this Act, the service of any document and the giving or sending of any notice may be proved
- (a) by oral evidence given under oath by, or by the affidavit or solemn declaration of, the person claiming to have served, given or sent it; or
- (b) in the case of a peace officer, by a statement in writing certifying that the document was served or the notice was given or sent by the peace officer, and such a statement is deemed to be a statement made under oath.
- Proof of service in accordance with provincial laws
(6.1) Despite subsection (6) [proof of notifications and service of documents], the service of documents may be proved in accordance with the laws of a province relating to offences created by the laws of that province.
- Attendance for examination
(7) Despite subsection (6) [proof of notifications and service of documents] or (6.1) [proof of service in accordance with provincial laws], the court may require the person who appears to have signed an affidavit, a solemn declaration or a statement in accordance with that subsection to appear before it for examination or cross-examination in respect of the issue of proof of service or of the giving or sending of any notice.
R.S., 1985, c. C-46, s. 4;
R.S., 1985, c. 27 (1st Supp.), s. 3;
1994, c. 44, s. 3;
1997, c. 18, s. 2;
2008, c. 18, s. 1;
2014, c. 31, s. 2.
Evidential Exhibits and Identification Exhibits
In the trial process not all documents that are put to a witness are admissible as actual evidence. Certain items are marked for identification only.
It has been recommended that all items put to a witness, even if for cross examination purposes, should be marked for identification purposes in order to assist appellate review.
Proceedings Under the Youth Criminal Justice Act
- Proof of service
152 (1) For the purposes of this Act, service of any document may be proved by oral evidence given under oath by, or by the affidavit or statutory declaration of, the person claiming to have personally served it or sent it by confirmed delivery service.
- Proof of signature and official character unnecessary
(2) If proof of service of any document is offered by affidavit or statutory declaration, it is not necessary to prove the signature or official character of the person making or taking the affidavit or declaration, if the official character of that person appears on the face of the affidavit or declaration.
- Seal not required
153 It is not necessary to the validity of any information, indictment, summons, warrant, minute, sentence, conviction, order or other process or document laid, issued, filed or entered in any proceedings under this Act that any seal be attached or affixed to it.
Summaries of Voluminous Documents
Summaries of voluminous raw documents can be admissible for the purpose of assisting the trier-of-fact in understanding "the entire picture represented by voluminous documentary evidence" as long as source documents are also admitted. "The usefulness of the summaries depended entirely ... upon the acceptance ... the facts upon which the summaries were based."
In practice, spreadsheets of banking records that have not been admitted have been found acceptable where the tables can be authenticated as an accurate summary of the records it represents. The witness need not be the author of the spreadsheet or the source records.
Admissible summaries can include Crown brief reports where it conforms with exhibits and testimony. It's usefulness will depend on the findings of fact.
Related to this principle from Schell, summaries can be admitted without admitting the source documents
under the Voluminous Document Hearsay Exception.
R v Scheel, 1978 CanLII 2414 (ON CA), 42 CCC (2d) 31, per Martin JA, at para 13
'McDaniel vs. U.S.' (1965), 343 F. 2d 785 (US)
see R v Agyei, 2007 ONCJ 459 (CanLII), per Cowan J
R v Fischer, 2022 ONSC 3794 (CanLII), per Nicholson J, at para 94
Documents Found in Possession of Accused
Documents that are found in actual or constructive possession of the accused can be used to draw the inference that he has knowledge of the contents of the documents and has a state of mind about any transaction contemplated by it. However, where the document has been recognized, adopted or acted upon by the accused, the documents can be admitted for the truth of their contents.
Documents held in the possession of the accused is prima facie admissible for the truth of its contents.
This view has been applied to documents found in the accused's offices.
R v Wood, 2001 NSCA 38 (CanLII), 157 CCC (3d) 389, per curiam
R v Drakes, 2005 CanLII 23683 (ON SC),  OJ No 2863, per Epstein SCJ, at para 76
R v Beauchamp, 2009 CanLII 9477 (ON SC), per Smith J, at paras 12 to 17
R v Ivy Fisheries Ltd., 2006 NSPC 5 (CanLII),  NSJ No 287, per Crawford J, at para 33
Documents Made by Accused
Documents that contain hearsay evidence are admissible where they were made by or under the direction of the accused.
Signatures and Handwriting
A signature is evidence suggesting the authorship of a document or knowledge and consent to the contents of it.
Where a party disputes the authenticity or identity of a signature, the signature can be proven by comparison "with any writing proved [...] to be genuine."
where a witness has frequently seen the handwriting of an individual can give evidence establishing the identity of the writer.
See also: R v Abdi, 1997 CanLII 4448 (ON CA), 116 CCC (3d) 385, per Robins JA
See also Identity and Lay Opinion Evidence
Proving forged signature on documents will require an expert of handwriting analysis to determine the probability of matching the accused's signature and the document.
Errors in Documents
- Certificates of analysis
Errors and ambiguity in certificates of analysis in which there was a typographical error is not fatal to the case where it can be mended by way of viva voce evidence and where “the error was not of such a nature as to have misled the accused or to interfere with his right to make full answer and defense and receive a fair trial”.
R v Ryden, 1993 ABCA 356 (CanLII), 86 CCC (3d) 57, per curiam p62 (error in name)
R v Bykowski, 1980 ABCA 220 (CanLII), 54 CCC (2d) 398, per McDermid J (error in date)
R v Smith, 2012 ABPC 14 (CanLII), per Hougestol J (error in addressee of certificate)
R v Thorburn (1997), 36 W.C.B.(2d) 41, (Alta.Prov.Ct.)(*no CanLII links)
certificate stating time as “504” instead of “5:04” can be cured by testimony of the police officer
R v Crandall (1998) 195 N.B.R.(2d) 210(*no CanLII links)
-- “0358 hours” interpreted to mean 3:58 a.m., no prejudice to accused
cf. R v Gosby, 1974 CanLII 1435 (NSCA), (1974) 16 CCC (2d) 228 (NSCA), per MacKeigan CJ (error in significant substance)
Section 30(10) sets out several types of records which are inadmissible despite any other provision of the evidence act:
- records "made in the course of an investigation or inquiry"
- records "made in the course of obtaining or giving legal advice or in contemplation of a legal proceeding,"
- privileged records
- "a record of or alluding to a statement made by a person who is not, or if he were living and of sound mind would not be, competent and compellable to disclose in the legal proceeding a matter disclosed in the record;"
- "any record the production of which would be contrary to public policy"
- "any transcript or recording of evidence taken in the course of another legal proceeding."
The admissibility of foreign documents is governed by section 36 to 40 of the Mutual Legal Assistance in Criminal Matters Act, RSC 1985, c 30 (4th Supp) (MLAC).
- ADMISSIBILITY IN CANADA OF EVIDENCE OBTAINED ABROAD PURSUANT TO AN AGREEMENT
- Foreign records
36 (1) In a proceeding with respect to which Parliament has jurisdiction, a record or a copy of the record and any affidavit, certificate or other statement pertaining to the record made by a person who has custody or knowledge of the record, sent to the Minister by a state or entity in accordance with a Canadian request, is not inadmissible in evidence by reason only that a statement contained in the record, copy, affidavit, certificate or other statement is hearsay or a statement of opinion.
- Probative value
(2) For the purpose of determining the probative value of a record or a copy of a record admitted in evidence under this Act, the trier of fact may examine the record or copy, receive evidence orally or by affidavit, or by a certificate or other statement pertaining to the record in which a person attests that the certificate or statement is made in conformity with the laws that apply to a state or entity, whether or not the certificate or statement is in the form of an affidavit attested to before an official of the state or entity, including evidence as to the circumstances in which the data contained in the record or copy was written, stored or reproduced, and draw any reasonable inference from the form or content of the record or copy.
R.S., 1985, c. 30 (4th Supp.), s. 36;
1994, c. 44, s. 96;
1999, c. 18, s. 120;
2014, c. 31, s. 44.
- Foreign things
37. In a proceeding with respect to which Parliament has jurisdiction, a thing and any affidavit, certificate or other statement pertaining to the thing made by a person in a state or entity as to the identity and possession of the thing from the time it was obtained until its sending to a competent authority in Canada by the state or entity in accordance with a Canadian request, are not inadmissible in evidence by reason only that the affidavit, certificate or other statement contains hearsay or a statement of opinion.
R.S., 1985, c. 30 (4th Supp.), s. 37; 1994, c. 44, s. 97; 1999, c. 18, s. 120.
- Status of certificate
38 (1) An affidavit, certificate or other statement mentioned in section 36 or 37 is, in the absence of evidence to the contrary, proof of the statements contained therein without proof of the signature or official character of the person appearing to have signed the affidavit, certificate or other statement.
(2) Unless the court decides otherwise, in a proceeding with respect to which Parliament has jurisdiction, no record or copy thereof, no thing and no affidavit, certificate or other statement mentioned in section 36 or 37 shall be received in evidence unless the party intending to produce it has given to the party against whom it is intended to be produced seven days notice, excluding holidays, of that intention, accompanied by a copy of the record, copy, affidavit, certificate or other statement and unless, in the case of a thing, the party intending to produce it has made it available for inspection by the party against whom it is intended to be produced during the five days following a request by that party that it be made so available.
- Service abroad
39. The service of a document in the territory over which the state or entity has jurisdiction may be proved by affidavit of the person who served it.
R.S., 1985, c. 30 (4th Supp.), s. 39; 1999, c. 18, s. 121.
- Canada Evidence Act
- Oaths taken abroad
53. Oaths, affidavits, solemn affirmations or declarations administered, taken or received outside Canada by any person mentioned in section 52 are as valid and effectual and are of the like force and effect to all intents and purposes as if they had been administered, taken or received in Canada by a person authorized to administer, take or receive oaths, affidavits, solemn affirmations or declarations therein that are valid and effectual under this Act.
R.S., c. E-10, s. 50.
- Documents to be admitted in evidence
54 (1) Any document that purports to have affixed, impressed or subscribed on it or to it the signature of any person authorized by any of paragraphs 52(a) to (d) to administer, take or receive oaths, affidavits, solemn affirmations or declarations, together with their seal or with the seal or stamp of their office, or the office to which the person is attached, in testimony of any oath, affidavit, solemn affirmation or declaration being administered, taken or received by the person, shall be admitted in evidence, without proof of the seal or stamp or of the person’s signature or official character.
- Status of statements
(2) An affidavit, solemn affirmation, declaration or other similar statement taken or received in a foreign country by an official referred to in paragraph 52(e) shall be admitted in evidence without proof of the signature or official character of the official appearing to have signed the affidavit, solemn affirmation, declaration or other statement.
R.S., 1985, c. C-5, s. 54; 1994, c. 44, s. 93.