Miscellaneous Fraudulent Offences

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Fraud by Mail

Using mails to defraud
381. Every one who makes use of the mails for the purpose of transmitting or delivering letters or circulars concerning schemes devised or intended to deceive or defraud the public, or for the purpose of obtaining money under false pretences, is guilty of an indictable offence and liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding two years.

R.S., c. C-34, s. 339.


CCC

Manipulating Stock Exchange

Fraudulent manipulation of stock exchange transactions
382. Every one who, through the facility of a stock exchange, curb market or other market, with intent to create a false or misleading appearance of active public trading in a security or with intent to create a false or misleading appearance with respect to the market price of a security,

(a) effects a transaction in the security that involves no change in the beneficial ownership thereof,
(b) enters an order for the purchase of the security, knowing that an order of substantially the same size at substantially the same time and at substantially the same price for the sale of the security has been or will be entered by or for the same or different persons, or
(c) enters an order for the sale of the security, knowing that an order of substantially the same size at substantially the same time and at substantially the same price for the purchase of the security has been or will be entered by or for the same or different persons,

is guilty of an indictable offence and liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding ten years.

R.S., 1985, c. C-46, s. 382; 2004, c. 3, s. 4.


CCC

Insider Trading

Prohibited insider trading
382.1 (1) A person is guilty of an indictable offence and liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding ten years who, directly or indirectly, buys or sells a security, knowingly using inside information that they

(a) possess by virtue of being a shareholder of the issuer of that security;
(b) possess by virtue of, or obtained in the course of, their business or professional relationship with that issuer;
(c) possess by virtue of, or obtained in the course of, a proposed takeover or reorganization of, or amalgamation, merger or similar business combination with, that issuer;
(d) possess by virtue of, or obtained in the course of, their employment, office, duties or occupation with that issuer or with a person referred to in paragraphs (a) to (c); or
(e) obtained from a person who possesses or obtained the information in a manner referred to in paragraphs (a) to (d).

Tipping
(2) Except when necessary in the course of business, a person who knowingly conveys inside information that they possess or obtained in a manner referred to in subsection (1) to another person, knowing that there is a risk that the person will use the information to buy or sell, directly or indirectly, a security to which the information relates, or that they may convey the information to another person who may buy or sell such a security, is guilty of

(a) an indictable offence and liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding five years; or
(b) an offence punishable on summary conviction.

Saving
(3) For greater certainty, an act is not an offence under this section if it is authorized or required, or is not prohibited, by any federal or provincial Act or regulation applicable to it.

Definition of “inside information”
(4) In this section, “inside information” means information relating to or affecting the issuer of a security or a security that they have issued, or are about to issue, that

(a) has not been generally disclosed; and
(b) could reasonably be expected to significantly affect the market price or value of a security of the issuer.

2004, c. 3, s. 5.


CCC

Gaming in Stock or Mechandise

Gaming in stocks or merchandise
383. (1) Every one is guilty of an indictable offence and liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding five years who, with intent to make gain or profit by the rise or fall in price of the stock of an incorporated or unincorporated company or undertaking, whether in or outside Canada, or of any goods, wares or merchandise,

(a) makes or signs, or authorizes to be made or signed, any contract or agreement, oral or written, purporting to be for the purchase or sale of shares of stock or goods, wares or merchandise, without the bona fide intention of acquiring the shares, goods, wares or merchandise or of selling them, as the case may be, or
(b) makes or signs, or authorizes to be made or signed, any contract or agreement, oral or written, purporting to be for the sale or purchase of shares of stock or goods, wares or merchandise in respect of which no delivery of the thing sold or purchased is made or received, and without the bona fide intention of making or receiving delivery thereof, as the case may be,

but this section does not apply where a broker, on behalf of a purchaser, receives delivery, notwithstanding that the broker retains or pledges what is delivered as security for the advance of the purchase money or any part thereof.

Onus
(2) Where, in proceedings under this section, it is established that the accused made or signed a contract or an agreement for the sale or purchase of shares of stock or goods, wares or merchandise, or acted, aided or abetted in the making or signing thereof, the burden of proof of a bona fide intention to acquire or to sell the shares, goods, wares or merchandise or to deliver or to receive delivery thereof, as the case may be, lies on the accused.

R.S., c. C-34, s. 341.


CCC

Broker reducing stock by selling for his own account

Broker reducing stock by selling for his own account
384. Every one is guilty of an indictable offence and liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding five years who, being an individual, or a member or an employee of a partnership, or a director, an officer or an employee of a corporation, where he or the partnership or corporation is employed as a broker by any customer to buy and carry on margin any shares of an incorporated or unincorporated company or undertaking, whether in or out of Canada, thereafter sells or causes to be sold shares of the company or undertaking for any account in which

(a) he or his firm or a partner thereof, or
(b) the corporation or a director thereof,

has a direct or indirect interest, if the effect of the sale is, otherwise than unintentionally, to reduce the amount of those shares in the hands of the broker or under his control in the ordinary course of business below the amount of those shares that the broker should be carrying for all customers.

R.S., c. C-34, s. 342.


CCC

Fraudulent Concealment of Title Documents

Fraudulent concealment of title documents
385. (1) Every one who, being a vendor or mortgagor of property or of a chose in action or being a solicitor for or agent of a vendor or mortgagor of property or a chose in action, is served with a written demand for an abstract of title by or on behalf of the purchaser or mortgagee before the completion of the purchase or mortgage, and who

(a) with intent to defraud and for the purpose of inducing the purchaser or mortgagee to accept the title offered or produced to him, conceals from him any settlement, deed, will or other instrument material to the title, or any encumbrance on the title, or
(b) falsifies any pedigree on which the title depends,

is guilty of an indictable offence and liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding two years.

Consent required
(2) No proceedings shall be instituted under this section without the consent of the Attorney General.

R.S., c. C-34, s. 343.


CCC

Fraudulent Registation of Title

Fraudulent registration of title
386. Every one who, as principal or agent, in a proceeding to register title to real property, or in a transaction relating to real property that is or is proposed to be registered, knowingly and with intent to deceive,

(a) makes a material false statement or representation,
(b) suppresses or conceals from a judge or registrar, or any person employed by or assisting the registrar, any material document, fact, matter or information, or
(c) is privy to anything mentioned in paragraph (a) or (b),

is guilty of an indictable offence and liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding five years.

R.S., c. C-34, s. 344.


CCC

Fraudulent sale of real property

Fraudulent sale of real property
387. Every one who, knowing of an unregistered prior sale or of an existing unregistered grant, mortgage, hypothec, privilege or encumbrance of or on real property, fraudulently sells the property or any part thereof is guilty of an indictable offence and liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding two years.

R.S., c. C-34, s. 345.


CCC

Misleading receipt

Misleading receipt
388. Every one who wilfully

(a) with intent to mislead, injure or defraud any person, whether or not that person is known to him, gives to a person anything in writing that purports to be a receipt for or an acknowledgment of property that has been delivered to or received by him, before the property referred to in the purported receipt or acknowledgment has been delivered to or received by him, or
(b) accepts, transmits or uses a purported receipt or acknowledgment to which paragraph (a) applies,

is guilty of an indictable offence and liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding two years.

R.S., c. C-34, s. 346.


CCC

Fraudulent disposal of goods on which money advanced

Fraudulent disposal of goods on which money advanced
389. (1) Every one who

(a) having shipped or delivered to the keeper of a warehouse or to a factor, an agent or a carrier anything on which the consignee thereof has advanced money or has given valuable security, thereafter, with intent to deceive, defraud or injure the consignee, disposes of it in a manner that is different from and inconsistent with any agreement that has been made in that behalf between him and the consignee, or
(b) knowingly and wilfully aids or assists any person to make a disposition of anything to which paragraph (a) applies for the purpose of deceiving, defrauding or injuring the consignee,

is guilty of an indictable offence and liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding two years.

Saving
(2) No person is guilty of an offence under this section where, before disposing of anything in a manner that is different from and inconsistent with any agreement that has been made in that behalf between him and the consignee, he pays or tenders to the consignee the full amount of money or valuable security that the consignee has advanced.

R.S., c. C-34, s. 347.


CCC

Fraudulent Receipts

Fraudulent receipts under Bank Act
390. Every one is guilty of an indictable offence and liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding two years who

(a) wilfully makes a false statement in any receipt, certificate or acknowledgment for anything that may be used for a purpose mentioned in the Bank Act; or
(b) wilfully,
(i) after giving to another person,
(ii) after a person employed by him has, to his knowledge, given to another person, or
(iii) after obtaining and endorsing or assigning to another person,

any receipt, certificate or acknowledgment for anything that may be used for a purpose mentioned in the Bank Act, without the consent in writing of the holder or endorsee or the production and delivery of the receipt, certificate or acknowledgment, alienates or parts with, or does not deliver to the holder or owner the property mentioned in the receipt, certificate or acknowledgment.

R.S., c. C-34, s. 348.


CCC

Disposal of property to defraud creditors

Disposal of property to defraud creditors
392. Every one who,

(a) with intent to defraud his creditors,
(i) makes or causes to be made any gift, conveyance, assignment, sale, transfer or delivery of his property, or
(ii) removes, conceals or disposes of any of his property, or
(b) with intent that any one should defraud his creditors, receives any property by means of or in relation to which an offence has been committed under paragraph (a),

is guilty of an indictable offence and liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding two years.

R.S., c. C-34, s. 350.


CCC

Fraud in relation to fares

Fraud in relation to fares, etc.
393. (1) Every one whose duty it is to collect a fare, toll, ticket or admission who wilfully

(a) fails to collect it,
(b) collects less than the proper amount payable in respect thereof, or
(c) accepts any valuable consideration for failing to collect it or for collecting less than the proper amount payable in respect thereof,

is guilty of an indictable offence and liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding two years.

Idem
(2) Every one who gives or offers to a person whose duty it is to collect a fare, toll, ticket or admission fee any valuable consideration

(a) for failing to collect it, or
(b) for collecting an amount less than the amount payable in respect thereof,

is guilty of an indictable offence and liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding two years.

Fraudulently obtaining transportation
(3) Every one who, by any false pretence or fraud, unlawfully obtains transportation by land, water or air is guilty of an offence punishable on summary conviction.

R.S., c. C-34, s. 351.


CCC

Fraud in relation to valuable minerals

Fraud in relation to valuable minerals
394. (1) No person who is the holder of a lease or licence issued under an Act relating to the mining of valuable minerals, or by the owner of land that is supposed to contain valuable minerals, shall

(a) by a fraudulent device or contrivance, defraud or attempt to defraud any person of
(i) any valuable minerals obtained under or reserved by the lease or licence, or
(ii) any money or valuable interest or thing payable in respect of valuable minerals obtained or rights reserved by the lease or licence; or
(b) fraudulently conceal or make a false statement with respect to the amount of valuable minerals obtained under the lease or licence.

Sale of valuable minerals
(2) No person, other than the owner or the owner’s agent or someone otherwise acting under lawful authority, shall sell any valuable mineral that is unrefined, partly refined, uncut or otherwise unprocessed.

Purchase of valuable minerals
(3) No person shall buy any valuable mineral that is unrefined, partly refined, uncut or otherwise unprocessed from anyone who the person has reason to believe is not the owner or the owner’s agent or someone otherwise acting under lawful authority.

Presumption
(4) In any proceeding in relation to subsection (2) or (3), in the absence of evidence raising a reasonable doubt to the contrary, it is presumed that

(a) in the case of a sale, the seller is not the owner of the valuable mineral or the owner’s agent or someone otherwise acting under lawful authority; and
(b) in the case of a purchase, the purchaser, when buying the valuable mineral, had reason to believe that the seller was not the owner of the mineral or the owner’s agent or someone otherwise acting under lawful authority.

Offence
(5) A person who contravenes subsection (1), (2) or (3) is guilty of an indictable offence and liable to imprisonment for a term of not more than five years.

Forfeiture
(6) If a person is convicted of an offence under this section, the court may order anything by means of or in relation to which the offence was committed, on such conviction, to be forfeited to Her Majesty.

Exception
(7) Subsection (6) does not apply to real property other than real property built or significantly modified for the purpose of facilitating the commission of an offence under this section.

R.S., 1985, c. C-46, s. 394; R.S., 1985, c. 27 (1st Supp.), s. 186; 1999, c. 5, s. 10.


CCC

Possession of stolen or fraudulently obtained valuable minerals

Possession of stolen or fraudulently obtained valuable minerals
394.1 (1) No person shall possess any valuable mineral that is unrefined, partly refined, uncut or otherwise unprocessed that has been stolen or dealt with contrary to section 394.

Evidence
(2) Reasonable grounds to believe that the valuable mineral has been stolen or dealt with contrary to section 394 are, in the absence of evidence raising a reasonable doubt to the contrary, proof that the valuable mineral has been stolen or dealt with contrary to section 394.

Offence
(3) A person who contravenes subsection (1) is guilty of an indictable offence and liable to imprisonment for a term of not more than five years.

Forfeiture
(4) If a person is convicted of an offence under this section, the court may, on that conviction, order that anything by means of or in relation to which the offence was committed be forfeited to Her Majesty.

Exception
(5) Subsection (4) does not apply to real property, other than real property built or significantly modified for the purpose of facilitating the commission of an offence under subsection (3).

1999, c. 5, s. 10.


CCC

Search for valuable minerals
395. (1) If an information in writing is laid under oath before a justice by a peace officer or by a public officer who has been appointed or designated to administer or enforce a federal or provincial law and whose duties include the enforcement of this Act or any other Act of Parliament and the justice is satisfied that there are reasonable grounds to believe that, contrary to this Act or any other Act of Parliament, any valuable mineral is deposited in a place or held by a person, the justice may issue a warrant authorizing a peace officer or a public officer, if the public officer is named in it, to search any of the places or persons mentioned in the information.

Power to seize
(2) Where, on search, anything mentioned in subsection (1) is found, it shall be seized and carried before the justice who shall order

(a) that it be detained for the purposes of an inquiry or a trial; or
(b) if it is not detained for the purposes of an inquiry or a trial,
(i) that it be restored to the owner, or
(ii) that it be forfeited to Her Majesty in right of the province in which the proceedings take place if the owner cannot be ascertained.

Appeal
(3) An appeal lies from an order made under paragraph (2)(b) in the manner in which an appeal lies in summary conviction proceedings under Part XXVII and the provisions of that Part relating to appeals apply to appeals under this subsection.

R.S., 1985, c. C-46, s. 395; 1999, c. 5, s. 11.


CCC

Offences in relation to mines

Offences in relation to mines
396. (1) Every one who

(a) adds anything to or removes anything from any existing or prospective mine, mining claim or oil well with a fraudulent intent to affect the result of an assay, a test or a valuation that has been made or is to be made with respect to the mine, mining claim or oil well, or
(b) adds anything to, removes anything from or tampers with a sample or material that has been taken or is being or is about to be taken from any existing or prospective mine, mining claim or oil well for the purpose of being assayed, tested or otherwise valued, with a fraudulent intent to affect the result of the assay, test or valuation,

is guilty of an indictable offence and liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding ten years.

Presumption
(2) For the purposes of proceedings under subsection (1), evidence that

(a) something has been added to or removed from anything to which subsection (1) applies, or
(b) anything to which subsection (1) applies has been tampered with,

is, in the absence of any evidence to the contrary, proof of a fraudulent intent to affect the result of an assay, a test or a valuation.

R.S., c. C-34, s. 354.


CCC

Falsification of Books and Documents

Falsification of Books and Documents

Books and documents
397. (1) Every one who, with intent to defraud,

(a) destroys, mutilates, alters, falsifies or makes a false entry in, or
(b) omits a material particular from, or alters a material particular in,

a book, paper, writing, valuable security or document is guilty of an indictable offence and liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding five years.

Privy
(2) Every one who, with intent to defraud his creditors, is privy to the commission of an offence under subsection (1) is guilty of an indictable offence and liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding five years.

R.S., c. C-34, s. 355.


CCC

Falsifying employment record

Falsifying employment record
398. Every one who, with intent to deceive, falsifies an employment record by any means, including the punching of a time clock, is guilty of an offence punishable on summary conviction.

R.S., 1985, c. C-46, s. 398; 1992, c. 1, s. 60(F).


CCC

False return by public officer

False return by public officer
399. Every one who, being entrusted with the receipt, custody or management of any part of the public revenues, knowingly furnishes a false statement or return of

(a) any sum of money collected by him or entrusted to his care, or
(b) any balance of money in his hands or under his control,

is guilty of an indictable offence and liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding five years.

R.S., c. C-34, s. 357.


CCC

False prospectus

False prospectus, etc.
400. (1) Every one who makes, circulates or publishes a prospectus, a statement or an account, whether written or oral, that he knows is false in a material particular, with intent

(a) to induce persons, whether ascertained or not, to become shareholders or partners in a company,
(b) to deceive or defraud the members, shareholders or creditors, whether ascertained or not, of a company, or
(c) to induce any person to
(i) entrust or advance anything to a company, or
(ii) enter into any security for the benefit of a company,
(d) [Repealed, 1994, c. 44, s. 26]

is guilty of an indictable offence and liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding ten years.
Definition of “company”
(2) In this section, “company” means a syndicate, body corporate or company, whether existing or proposed to be created.

R.S., 1985, c. C-46, s. 400; 1994, c. 44, s. 26.


CCC

Obtaining carriage by false billing

Obtaining carriage by false billing
401. (1) Every one who, by means of a false or misleading representation, knowingly obtains or attempts to obtain the carriage of anything by any person into a country, province, district or other place, whether or not within Canada, where the importation or transportation of it is, in the circumstances of the case, unlawful is guilty of an offence punishable on summary conviction.

Forfeiture
(2) Where a person is convicted of an offence under subsection (1), anything by means of or in relation to which the offence was committed, on such conviction, in addition to any punishment that is imposed, is forfeited to Her Majesty and shall be disposed of as the court may direct.

R.S., c. C-34, s. 359.


CCC

Trader failing to keep accounts

Trader failing to keep accounts
402. (1) Every one who, being a trader or in business,

(a) is indebted in an amount exceeding one thousand dollars,
(b) is unable to pay his creditors in full, and
(c) has not kept books of account that, in the ordinary course of the trade or business in which he is engaged, are necessary to exhibit or explain his transactions,

is guilty of an indictable offence and liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding two years.

Saving
(2) No person shall be convicted of an offence under this section

(a) where, to the satisfaction of the court or judge, he
(i) accounts for his losses, and
(ii) shows that his failure to keep books was not intended to defraud his creditors; or
(b) where his failure to keep books occurred at a time more than five years prior to the day on which he was unable to pay his creditors in full.

R.S., c. C-34, s. 360.


CCC

Personation at examination

Personation at examination
404. Every one who falsely, with intent to gain advantage for himself or some other person, personates a candidate at a competitive or qualifying examination held under the authority of law or in connection with a university, college or school or who knowingly avails himself of the results of such personation is guilty of an offence punishable on summary conviction.

R.S., c. C-34, s. 362.

Acknowledging instrument in false name
405. Every one who, without lawful authority or excuse, the proof of which lies on him, acknowledges, in the name of another person before a court or a judge or other person authorized to receive the acknowledgment, a recognizance of bail, a confession of judgment, a consent to judgment or a judgment, deed or other instrument is guilty of an indictable offence and liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding five years.

R.S., c. C-34, s. 363.


CCC

Forging Trade-marks

Forgery of Trade-marks and Trade Descriptions

Forging trade-mark
406. For the purposes of this Part, every one forges a trade-mark who

(a) without the consent of the proprietor of the trade-mark, makes or reproduces in any manner that trade-mark or a mark so nearly resembling it as to be calculated to deceive; or
(b) falsifies, in any manner, a genuine trade-mark.

R.S., c. C-34, s. 364.

Offence
407. Every one commits an offence who, with intent to deceive or defraud the public or any person, whether ascertained or not, forges a trade-mark.

R.S., c. C-34, s. 365.


CCC

Passing off

Passing off
408. Every one commits an offence who, with intent to deceive or defraud the public or any person, whether ascertained or not, (a) passes off other wares or services as and for those ordered or required; or (b) makes use, in association with wares or services, of any description that is false in a material respect regarding (i) the kind, quality, quantity or composition, (ii) the geographical origin, or (iii) the mode of the manufacture, production or performance of those wares or services.

R.S., 1985, c. C-46, s. 408; 1992, c. 1, s. 60(F).

Instruments for forging trade-mark
409. (1) Every one commits an offence who makes, has in his possession or disposes of a die, block, machine or other instrument designed or intended to be used in forging a trade-mark.

Saving
(2) No person shall be convicted of an offence under this section where he proves that he acted in good faith in the ordinary course of his business or employment.

R.S., c. C-34, s. 367.


CCC

Other Offences in relation to trade-marks

Other offences in relation to trade-marks
410. Every one commits an offence who, with intent to deceive or defraud,

(a) defaces, conceals or removes a trade-mark or the name of another person from anything without the consent of that other person; or
(b) being a manufacturer, dealer, trader or bottler, fills any bottle or siphon that bears the trade-mark or name of another person, without the consent of that other person, with a beverage, milk, by-product of milk or other liquid commodity for the purpose of sale or traffic.

R.S., c. C-34, s. 368.


CCC

Used goods sold without disclosure

Used goods sold without disclosure
411. Every one commits an offence who sells, exposes or has in his possession for sale, or advertises for sale, goods that have been used, reconditioned or remade and that bear the trade-mark or the trade-name of another person, without making full disclosure that the goods have been reconditioned, rebuilt or remade for sale and that they are not then in the condition in which they were originally made or produced.

R.S., c. C-34, s. 369.

Punishment
412. (1) Every one who commits an offence under section 407, 408, 409, 410 or 411 is guilty of

(a) an indictable offence and is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding two years; or
(b) an offence punishable on summary conviction.

Forfeiture
(2) Anything by means of or in relation to which a person commits an offence under section 407, 408, 409, 410 or 411 is, unless the court otherwise orders, forfeited on the conviction of that person for that offence.

R.S., c. C-34, s. 370.


CCC

Falsely Claiming Royal Warrant

Falsely claiming royal warrant
413. Every one who falsely represents that goods are made by a person holding a royal warrant, or for the service of Her Majesty, a member of the Royal Family or a public department is guilty of an offence punishable on summary conviction.

R.S., c. C-34, s. 371.

Presumption from port of shipment
414. Where, in proceedings under this Part, the alleged offence relates to imported goods, evidence that the goods were shipped to Canada from a place outside Canada is, in the absence of any evidence to the contrary, proof that the goods were made or produced in the country from which they were shipped.

R.S., c. C-34, s. 372.


CCC

Offences in relation to wreck

Offences in relation to wreck
415. Every one who

(a) secretes wreck, defaces or obliterates the marks on wreck or uses any means to disguise or conceal the fact that anything is wreck, or in any manner conceals the character of wreck, from a person who is entitled to inquire into the wreck,
(b) receives wreck, knowing that it is wreck, from a person other than the owner thereof or a receiver of wreck, and does not within forty-eight hours thereafter inform the receiver of wreck thereof,
(c) offers wreck for sale or otherwise deals with it, knowing that it is wreck, and not having a lawful authority to sell or deal with it,
(d) keeps wreck in his possession knowing that it is wreck, without lawful authority to keep it, for any time longer than the time reasonably necessary to deliver it to the receiver of wreck, or
(e) boards, against the will of the master, a vessel that is wrecked, stranded or in distress unless he is a receiver of wreck or a person acting under orders of a receiver of wreck,

is guilty of

(f) an indictable offence and is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding two years, or
(g) an offence punishable on summary conviction.

R.S., c. C-34, s. 373.


CCC

Public Stores Offences

Distinguishing mark on public stores
416. The Governor in Council may, by notice to be published in the Canada Gazette, prescribe distinguishing marks that are appropriated for use on public stores to denote the property of Her Majesty therein, whether the stores belong to Her Majesty in right of Canada or to Her Majesty in any other right.

R.S., c. C-34, s. 374.

Applying or removing marks without authority
417. (1) Every one who,

(a) without lawful authority, the proof of which lies on him, applies a distinguishing mark to anything, or
(b) with intent to conceal the property of Her Majesty in public stores, removes, destroys or obliterates, in whole or in part, a distinguishing mark,

is guilty of an indictable offence and liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding two years.

Unlawful transactions in public stores
(2) Every one who, without lawful authority, the proof of which lies on him, receives, possesses, keeps, sells or delivers public stores that he knows bear a distinguishing mark is guilty of

(a) an indictable offence and is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding two years; or
(b) an offence punishable on summary conviction.

Definition of “distinguishing mark”
(3) For the purposes of this section, “distinguishing mark” means a distinguishing mark that is appropriated for use on public stores pursuant to section 416.

R.S., c. C-34, s. 375.

Selling defective stores to Her Majesty
418. (1) Every one who knowingly sells or delivers defective stores to Her Majesty or commits fraud in connection with the sale, lease or delivery of stores to Her Majesty or the manufacture of stores for Her Majesty is guilty of an indictable offence and liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding fourteen years.

Offences by representatives
(2) Every one who, being a representative of an organization that commits, by fraud, an offence under subsection (1),

(a) knowingly takes part in the fraud, or
(b) knows or has reason to suspect that the fraud is being committed or has been or is about to be committed and does not inform the responsible government, or a department thereof, of Her Majesty,

is guilty of an indictable offence and liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding fourteen years.

R.S., 1985, c. C-46, s. 418; 2003, c. 21, s. 6.1.


CCC

Unlawful use of military uniforms or certificates

Unlawful use of military uniforms or certificates
419. Every one who without lawful authority, the proof of which lies on him,

(a) wears a uniform of the Canadian Forces or any other naval, army or air force or a uniform that is so similar to the uniform of any of those forces that it is likely to be mistaken therefor,
(b) wears a distinctive mark relating to wounds received or service performed in war, or a military medal, ribbon, badge, chevron or any decoration or order that is awarded for war services, or any imitation thereof, or any mark or device or thing that is likely to be mistaken for any such mark, medal, ribbon, badge, chevron, decoration or order,
(c) has in his possession a certificate of discharge, certificate of release, statement of service or identity card from the Canadian Forces or any other naval, army or air force that has not been issued to and does not belong to him, or
(d) has in his possession a commission or warrant or a certificate of discharge, certificate of release, statement of service or identity card, issued to an officer or a person in or who has been in the Canadian Forces or any other naval, army or air force, that contains any alteration that is not verified by the initials of the officer who issued it, or by the initials of an officer thereto lawfully authorized,

is guilty of an offence punishable on summary conviction.

R.S., c. C-34, s. 377.

Military stores
420. (1) Every one who buys, receives or detains from a member of the Canadian Forces or a deserter or an absentee without leave therefrom any military stores that are owned by Her Majesty or for which the member, deserter or absentee without leave is accountable to Her Majesty is guilty of

(a) an indictable offence and is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding five years; or
(b) an offence punishable on summary conviction.

Exception
(2) No person shall be convicted of an offence under this section where he establishes that he did not know and had no reason to suspect that the military stores in respect of which the offence was committed were owned by Her Majesty or were military stores for which the member, deserter or absentee without leave was accountable to Her Majesty.

R.S., c. C-34, s. 378.

Evidence of enlistment
421. (1) In proceedings under sections 417 to 420, evidence that a person was at any time performing duties in the Canadian Forces is, in the absence of any evidence to the contrary, proof that his enrolment in the Canadian Forces prior to that time was regular.

Presumption when accused a dealer in stores
(2) An accused who is charged with an offence under subsection 417(2) shall be presumed to have known that the stores in respect of which the offence is alleged to have been committed bore a distinguishing mark within the meaning of that subsection at the time the offence is alleged to have been committed if he was, at that time, in the service or employment of Her Majesty or was a dealer in marine stores or in old metals.

R.S., c. C-34, s. 379.


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Breach of Contract, Intimidation and Discrimination Against Trade Unionists

Criminal breach of contract
422. (1) Every one who wilfully breaks a contract, knowing or having reasonable cause to believe that the probable consequences of doing so, whether alone or in combination with others, will be

(a) to endanger human life,
(b) to cause serious bodily injury,
(c) to expose valuable property, real or personal, to destruction or serious injury,
(d) to deprive the inhabitants of a city or place, or part thereof, wholly or to a great extent, of their supply of light, power, gas or water, or
(e) to delay or prevent the running of any locomotive engine, tender, freight or passenger train or car, on a railway that is a common carrier,

is guilty of

(f) an indictable offence and is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding five years, or
(g) an offence punishable on summary conviction.

Saving
(2) No person wilfully breaks a contract within the meaning of subsection (1) by reason only that

(a) being the employee of an employer, he stops work as a result of the failure of his employer and himself to agree on any matter relating to his employment, or,
(b) being a member of an organization of employees formed for the purpose of regulating relations between employers and employees, he stops work as a result of the failure of the employer and a bargaining agent acting on behalf of the organization to agree on any matter relating to the employment of members of the organization,

if, before the stoppage of work occurs, all steps provided by law with respect to the settlement of industrial disputes are taken and any provision for the final settlement of differences, without stoppage of work, contained in or by law deemed to be contained in a collective agreement is complied with and effect given thereto.

Consent required
(3) No proceedings shall be instituted under this section without the consent of the Attorney General.

R.S., c. C-34, s. 380.

Threat against internationally protected person
424. Every one who threatens to commit an offence under section 235, 236, 266, 267, 268, 269, 269.1, 271, 272, 273, 279 or 279.1 against an internationally protected person or who threatens to commit an offence under section 431 is guilty of an indictable offence and liable to imprisonment for a term of not more than five years.

R.S., 1985, c. C-46, s. 424; R.S., 1985, c. 27 (1st Supp.), s. 55; 2001, c. 41, s. 11.

Threat against United Nations or associated personnel
424.1 Every one who, with intent to compel any person, group of persons, state or any international or intergovernmental organization to do or refrain from doing any act, threatens to commit an offence under section 235, 236, 266, 267, 268, 269, 269.1, 271, 272, 273, 279 or 279.1 against a member of United Nations personnel or associated personnel or threatens to commit an offence under section 431.1 is guilty of an indictable offence and liable to imprisonment for a term of not more than ten years.

2001, c. 41, s. 11.


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Issuing Trade stamps

Trading Stamps

Issuing trading stamps
427. (1) Every one who, by himself or his employee or agent, directly or indirectly issues, gives, sells or otherwise disposes of, or offers to issue, give, sell or otherwise dispose of trading stamps to a merchant or dealer in goods for use in his business is guilty of an offence punishable on summary conviction.

Giving to purchaser of goods
(2) Every one who, being a merchant or dealer in goods, by himself or his employee or agent, directly or indirectly gives or in any way disposes of, or offers to give or in any way dispose of, trading stamps to a person who purchases goods from him is guilty of an offence punishable on summary conviction.

R.S., c. C-34, s. 384.


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See Also