Miscellaneous Offences Against the Person

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Failing to Obtain Assistance in Child Birth

Neglect in Child-birth and Concealing Dead Body
Neglect to obtain assistance in childbirth

242 A female person who, being pregnant and about to be delivered, with intent that the child shall not live or with intent to conceal the birth of the child, fails to make provision for reasonable assistance in respect of her delivery is, if the child is permanently injured as a result of the failure or dies immediately before, during or in a short time after birth, as a result of the failure, guilty of

(a) an indictable offence and liable to imprisonment for a term of not more than five years; or
(b) an offence punishable on summary conviction.

R.S., 1985, c. C-46, s. 242; 2019, c. 25, s. 82.

CCC


Note up: 242

Section 242 does not apply to acts that occur after delivery of the fetus nor does it apply to acts resulting from a failure to obtain reasonable assistance. [1]

  1. R v Bryan, 1959 CanLII 487 (ON CA), per Porter CJ

Concealing Body of Child

Concealing body of child

243 Every person who in any manner disposes of the dead body of a child, with intent to conceal the fact that its mother has been delivered of it, whether the child died before, during or after birth, is guilty of

(a) an indictable offence and liable to imprisonment for a term of not more than two years; or
(b) an offence punishable on summary conviction.

R.S., 1985, c. C-46, s. 243; 2019, c. 25, s. 82.

CCC


Note up: 243

This offence only applies to the disposal of a child's remain who was born alive or would likely to have been born alive.[1] The mens rea requires that the accused knew the child was "likely to have been born alive".[2]

Medical evidence would be necessary to prove whether the child was "likely" to have been born alive.[3]

Constitutionality

The offence under s. 243 is not unconstitutionally void.[4]

Traps likely to cause bodily harm

Traps likely to cause bodily harm

247 (1) Every person is guilty of an indictable offence and liable to imprisonment for a term of not more than five years or is guilty of an offence punishable on summary conviction who with intent to cause death or bodily harm to a person, whether ascertained or not,

(a) sets or places a trap, device or other thing that is likely to cause death or bodily harm to a person; or
(b) being in occupation or possession of a place, knowingly permits such a trap, device or other thing to remain in that place.
Bodily harm

(2) Every person who commits an offence under subsection (1), and by doing so causes bodily harm to any other person, is guilty of

(a) an indictable offence and liable to imprisonment for a term of not more than 10 years; or
(b) an offence punishable on summary conviction.
Offence-related place

(3) Every person who commits an offence under subsection (1), in a place kept or used for the purpose of committing another indictable offence, is guilty of

(a) an indictable offence and liable to imprisonment for a term of not more than 10 years; or
(b) an offence punishable on summary conviction.
Offence-related place — bodily harm

(4) Every one who commits an offence under subsection (1), in a place kept or used for the purpose of committing another indictable offence, and thereby causes bodily harm to a person is guilty of an indictable offence and liable to a term of imprisonment not exceeding fourteen years.

Death

(5) Every one who commits an offence under subsection (1) and thereby causes the death of any other person is guilty of an indictable offence and liable to imprisonment for life.

R.S., 1985, c. C-46, s. 247; 2004, c. 12, s. 6; 2019, c. 25, s. 84.

CCC


Note up: 247(1), (2), (3), (4), and (5)

Interfering with transportation facilities

Interfering with transportation facilities

248. Every one who, with intent to endanger the safety of any person, places anything on or does anything to any property that is used for or in connection with the transportation of persons or goods by land, water or air that is likely to cause death or bodily harm to persons is guilty of an indictable offence and liable to imprisonment for life.

R.S., c. C-34, s. 232.

CCC


Note up: 248

Impeding attempt to save life

Impeding attempt to save life

262 Every person is guilty of an indictable offence and liable to imprisonment for a term of not more than 10 years or is guilty of an offence punishable on summary conviction who

(a) prevents or impedes or attempts to prevent or impede any person who is attempting to save his own life, or
(b) without reasonable cause prevents or impedes or attempts to prevent or impede any person who is attempting to save the life of another person.

R.S., 1985, c. C-46, s. 262; 2019, c. 25, s. 90

CCC


Note up: 262

Duty to safeguard opening in ice

Duty to safeguard opening in ice

263 (1) Every one who makes or causes to be made an opening in ice that is open to or frequented by the public is under a legal duty to guard it in a manner that is adequate to prevent persons from falling in by accident and is adequate to warn them that the opening exists.

Excavation on land

(2) Every one who leaves an excavation on land that he owns or of which he has charge or supervision is under a legal duty to guard it in a manner that is adequate to prevent persons from falling in by accident and is adequate to warn them that the excavation exists.

Offences

(3) Every one who fails to perform a duty imposed by subsection (1) or (2) is guilty of

(a) manslaughter, if the death of any person results therefrom;
(b) an offence under section 269, if bodily harm to any person results therefrom; or
(c) an offence punishable on summary conviction.

R.S., c. C-34, s. 242; 1980-81-82-83, c. 125, s. 18.

CCC


Note up: 263(1), (2) and (3)

Unlawfully Cause Bodily Harm

Unlawfully causing bodily harm

269 Every one who unlawfully causes bodily harm to any person is guilty of

(a) an indictable offence and liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding ten years; or
(b) an offence punishable on summary conviction.

R.S., 1985, c. C-46, s. 269; 1994, c. 44, s. 18; 2019, c. 25, s. 94

CCC


Note up: 269

Torture

Torture

269.1 (1) Every official, or every person acting at the instigation of or with the consent or acquiescence of an official, who inflicts torture on any other person is guilty of an indictable offence and liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding fourteen years.

Definitions

(2) For the purposes of this section,
...
"official" means

(a) a peace officer, (b) a public officer, (c) a member of the Canadian Forces, or (d) any person who may exercise powers, pursuant to a law in force in a foreign state, that would, in Canada, be exercised by a person referred to in paragraph (a), (b), or (c), whether the person exercises powers in Canada or outside Canada;


...
"torture" means any act or omission by which severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental, is intentionally inflicted on a person

(a) for a purpose including
(i) obtaining from the person or from a third person information or a statement,
(ii) punishing the person for an act that the person or a third person has committed or is suspected of having committed, and
(iii) intimidating or coercing the person or a third person, or
(b) for any reason based on discrimination of any kind,

but does not include any act or omission arising only from, inherent in or incidental to lawful sanctions.

No defence

(3) It is no defence to a charge under this section that the accused was ordered by a superior or a public authority to perform the act or omission that forms the subject-matter of the charge or that the act or omission is alleged to have been justified by exceptional circumstances, including a state of war, a threat of war, internal political instability or any other public emergency.

Evidence

(4) In any proceedings over which Parliament has jurisdiction, any statement obtained as a result of the commission of an offence under this section is inadmissible in evidence, except as evidence that the statement was so obtained.

R.S., 1985, c. 10 (3rd Supp.), s. 2.

CCC


Note up: 269.1(1), (2), (3), and (4)

Bigamy

Bigamy

290 (1) Every one commits bigamy who

(a) in Canada,
(i) being married, goes through a form of marriage with another person,
(ii) knowing that another person is married, goes through a form of marriage with that person, or
(iii) on the same day or simultaneously, goes through a form of marriage with more than one person; or
(b) being a Canadian citizen resident in Canada leaves Canada with intent to do anything mentioned in subparagraphs (a)(i) to (iii) and, pursuant thereto, does outside Canada anything mentioned in those subparagraphs in circumstances mentioned therein.
Matters of defence

(2) No person commits bigamy by going through a form of marriage if

(a) that person in good faith and on reasonable grounds believes that his spouse is dead;
(b) the spouse of that person has been continuously absent from him for seven years immediately preceding the time when he goes through the form of marriage, unless he knew that his spouse was alive at any time during those seven years;
(c) that person has been divorced from the bond of the first marriage; or
(d) the former marriage has been declared void by a court of competent jurisdiction.
Incompetency no defence

(3) Where a person is alleged to have committed bigamy, it is not a defence that the parties would, if unmarried, have been incompetent to contract marriage under the law of the place where the offence is alleged to have been committed.

Validity presumed

(4) Every marriage or form of marriage shall, for the purpose of this section, be deemed to be valid unless the accused establishes that it was invalid.

Act or omission by accused

(5) No act or omission on the part of an accused who is charged with bigamy invalidates a marriage or form of marriage that is otherwise valid.

R.S., c. C-34, s. 254.

CCC


Note up: 290(1), (2), (3), (4), and (5)

Punishment

291 (1) Every person who commits bigamy is guilty of

(a) an indictable offence and liable to imprisonment for a term of not more than five years; or
(b) an offence punishable on summary conviction.
Certificate of marriage

(2) For the purposes of this section, a certificate of marriage issued under the authority of law is evidence of the marriage or form of marriage to which it relates without proof of the signature or official character of the person by whom it purports to be signed.

R.S., 1985, c. C-46, s. 291; 2019, c. 25, s. 112.

CCC


Note up: 291(1) and (2)

Procuring feigned Marriage

Procuring feigned marriage

292 (1) Every person who procures or knowingly aids in procuring a feigned marriage between themselves and another person is guilty of

(a) an indictable offence and liable to imprisonment for a term of not more than five years; or
(b) an offence punishable on summary conviction.
Corroboration

(2) No person shall be convicted of an offence under this section on the evidence of only one witness unless the evidence of that witness is corroborated in a material particular by evidence that implicates the accused.

R.S., 1985, c. C-46, s. 292; 2019, c. 25, s. 113.

CCC


Note up: 292(1) and (2)

Polygamy

Polygamy

293 (1) Every person is guilty of an indictable offence and liable to imprisonment for a term of not more than five years or is guilty of an offence punishable on summary conviction who

(a) practises or enters into or in any manner agrees or consents to practise or enter into any form of polygamy or any kind of conjugal union with more than one person at the same time, whether or not it is by law recognized as a binding form of marriage; or
(b) celebrates, assists or is a party to a rite, ceremony, contract or consent that purports to sanction a relationship mentioned in paragraph (a).
Evidence in case of polygamy

(2) Where an accused is charged with an offence under this section, no averment or proof of the method by which the alleged relationship was entered into, agreed to or consented to is necessary in the indictment or on the trial of the accused, nor is it necessary on the trial to prove that the persons who are alleged to have entered into the relationship had or intended to have sexual intercourse.

R.S., 1985, c. C-46, s. 293; 2019, c. 25, s. 114.

CCC


Note up: 293(1) and (2)

Section 4(5) states that "For the purposes of this Act, sexual intercourse is complete on penetration to even the slightest degree, notwithstanding that seed is not emitted."

Forced Marriage

Forced marriage

293.1 Every person who celebrates, aids or participates in a marriage rite or ceremony knowing that one of the persons being married is marrying against their will is guilty of

(a) an indictable offence and liable to imprisonment for a term of not more than five years; or
(b) an offence punishable on summary conviction.

2015, c. 29, s. 9; 2019, c. 25, s. 115.

CCC


Note up: 293.1

Marriage under age of 16 years

293.2 Every person who celebrates, aids or participates in a marriage rite or ceremony knowing that one of the persons being married is under the age of 16 years is guilty of

(a) an indictable offence and liable to imprisonment for a term of not more than five years; or
(b) an offence punishable on summary conviction.

2015, c. 29, s. 9; 2019, c. 25, s. 115.

CCC


Note up: 293.2

On September 19, 2019, s. 293.3 was repealed by Bill C-75 at s. 115.

Unlawful Solemnization of Marriage

Unlawful Solemnization of Marriage
Pretending to solemnize marriage

294 Every person is guilty of an indictable offence and liable to imprisonment for a term of not more than two years or is guilty of an offence punishable on summary conviction who

(a) solemnizes or pretends to solemnize a marriage without lawful authority; or
(b) procures a person to solemnize a marriage knowing that he is not lawfully authorized to solemnize the marriage.

R.S., 1985, c. C-46, s. 294; 2018, c. 29, s. 29; 2019, c. 25, s. 116.

CCC


Note up: 294

Marriage Contrary to Law

Marriage contrary to law

295 Every person who, being lawfully authorized to solemnize marriage, knowingly solemnizes a marriage in contravention of federal law or the laws of the province in which the marriage is solemnized is guilty of

(a) an indictable offence and liable to imprisonment for a term of not more than two years; or
(b) an offence punishable on summary conviction.

R.S., 1985, c. C-46, s. 295; 2015, c. 29, s. 10; 2019, c. 25, s. 117.

CCC


Note up: 295

On September 19, 2019, s. 295 was amended by Bill C-75 s. 117.

Misc Related Definitions

Interpretation
Definitions

214 In this Part,
"aircraft" does not include a machine designed to derive support in the atmosphere primarily from reactions against the earth’s surface of air expelled from the machine; (aéronef)
...
"form of marriage" includes a ceremony of marriage that is recognized as valid

(a) by the law of the place where it was celebrated, or
(b) by the law of the place where an accused is tried, notwithstanding that it is not recognized as valid by the law of the place where it was celebrated; (formalité de mariage)


"guardian" includes a person who has in law or in fact the custody or control of a child; (tuteur)
"vessel" includes a machine designed to derive support in the atmosphere primarily from reactions against the earth’s surface of air expelled from the machine. (bateau)
R.S., 1985, c. C-46, s. 214; R.S., 1985, c. 27 (1st Supp.), s. 33, c. 32 (4th Supp.), s. 56; 2002, c. 13, s. 9.

CCC


Note up: 214

See Also

  1. R v Levkovic, [2013] 2 SCR 204, 2013 SCC 25 (CanLII)
  2. Levkovic, ibid.
  3. Levkovic, ibid.
  4. Levkovic, ibid.