Review of Review Board

From Criminal Law Notebook

General Principles

An appellate court owes "considerable deference" to the disposition of the Board. It is reviewed on a standard of "reasonableness."[1]

On the question of risk assessment, the appellate court should not intervene unless the decision is unreasonable "in the sense of not being supported by reasons that can bear even a somewhat probing examination."[2]

  1. R v A.B. (Re), 2022 ONCA 748 (CanLII), per curiam, at para 9
    R v Owen, 2003 SCC 33 (CanLII), [2003] 1 SCR 779, at para , at para 37(complete citation pending)
  2. Owen, ibid., at para 33

Legislation

Review of Dispositions
Mandatory review of dispositions

672.81 (1) A Review Board shall hold a hearing not later than twelve months after making a disposition and every twelve months thereafter for as long as the disposition remains in force, to review any disposition that it has made in respect of an accused, other than an absolute discharge under paragraph 672.54(a) [absolute discharge – review board].

Extension on consent

(1.1) Despite subsection (1) [mandatory 12 month review of dispositions], the Review Board may extend the time for holding a hearing to a maximum of twenty-four months after the making or reviewing of a disposition if the accused is represented by counsel and the accused and the Attorney General consent to the extension.

Extension for serious personal violence offence

(1.2) Despite subsection (1) [mandatory 12 month review of dispositions], at the conclusion of a hearing under this section the Review Board may, after making a disposition, extend the time for holding a subsequent hearing under this section to a maximum of twenty-four months if

(a) the accused has been found not crimi­nally responsible for a serious personal injury offence;
(b) the accused is subject to a disposition made under paragraph 672.54(c) [order of detention to a hospital]; and
(c) the Review Board is satisfied on the basis of any relevant information, including disposition information within the meaning of subsection 672.51(1) [definition of disposition information] and an assessment report made under an assessment ordered under paragraph 672.121(a) [review board may order assessment – make recommendations], that the condition of the accused is not likely to improve and that detention remains necessary for the period of the extension.
Definition of serious personal injury offence

(1.3) For the purposes of subsection (1.2) [extension for serious personal violence offence], serious personal injury offence means

(a) an indictable offence involving
(i) the use or attempted use of violence against another person, or
(ii) conduct endangering or likely to endanger the life or safety of another person or inflicting or likely to inflict severe psychological damage upon another person; or
(b) an indictable offence referred to in section 151 [sexual interference], 152 [invitation to sexual touching], 153 [sexual exploitation], 153.1 [sexual exploitation of disabled], 155 [incest], 160 [bestiality], 170 [parent or guardian procuring sexual activity], 171 [householder permitting prohibited sexual activity], 172 [corrupting children], 271 [sexual assault], 272 [sexual assault with a weapon or causing bodily harm] or 273 [aggravated sexual assault] or an attempt to commit such an offence.
Extension on consent — high-risk accused

(1.31) Despite subsections (1) to (1.2) [mandatory 12 month review of dispositions and extensions], the Review Board may extend the time for holding a hearing in respect of a high-risk accused to a maximum of 36 months after making or reviewing a disposition if the accused is represented by counsel and the accused and the Attorney General consent to the extension.

Extension — no likely improvement

(1.32) Despite subsections (1) to (1.2) [mandatory 12 month review of dispositions and extensions], at the conclusion of a hearing under subsection 672.47(4) [exception – high-risk accused] or this section in respect of a high-risk accused, the Review Board may, after making a disposition, extend the time for holding a subsequent hearing under this section to a maximum of 36 months if the Review Board is satisfied on the basis of any relevant information, including disposition information as defined in subsection 672.51(1) [definition of disposition information] and an assessment report made under an assessment ordered under paragraph 672.121(c) [review board may order assessment – determine high-risk accused], that the accused’s condition is not likely to improve and that detention remains necessary for the period of the extension.

Notice

(1.4) If the Review Board extends the time for holding a hearing under subsection (1.2) [extension for serious personal violence offence] or (1.32) [review of dispositions — Extension — no likely improvement], it shall provide notice of the extension to the accused, the prosecutor and the person in charge of the hospital where the accused is detained.

Appeal

(1.5) A decision by the Review Board to extend the time for holding a hearing under subsection (1.2) [extension for serious personal violence offence] or (1.32) [review of dispositions — Extension — no likely improvement] is deemed to be a disposition for the purpose of sections 672.72 to 672.78 [review board — appeals].

Additional mandatory reviews in custody cases

(2) The Review Board shall hold a hearing to review any disposition made under paragraph 672.54(b) [conditional discharge – review board] or (c) [order of detention to a hospital] as soon as practicable after receiving notice that the person in charge of the place where the accused is detained or directed to attend requests the review.

Review in case of increase on restrictions on liberty

(2.1) The Review Board shall hold a hearing to review a decision to significantly increase the restrictions on the liberty of the accused, as soon as practicable after receiving the notice referred to in subsection 672.56(2) [X].

Idem

(3) Where an accused is detained in custody pursuant to a disposition made under paragraph 672.54(c) [order of detention to a hospital] and a sentence of imprisonment is subsequently imposed on the accused in respect of another offence, the Review Board shall hold a hearing to review the disposition as soon as is practicable after receiving notice of that sentence.
1991, c. 43, s. 4; 2005, c. 22, ss. 27, 42(F); 2014, c. 6, s. 15.
[annotation(s) added]

Discretionary review

672.82 (1) A Review Board may hold a hearing to review any of its dispositions at any time, of its own motion or at the request of the accused or any other party.

Review Board to provide notice

(1.1) Where a Review Board holds a hearing under subsection (1) [discretionary review of dispositions – holding hearing] of its own motion, it shall provide notice to the prosecutor, the accused and any other party.

Review cancels appeal

(2) Where a party requests a review of a disposition under this section, the party is deemed to abandon any appeal against the disposition taken under section 672.72 [grounds and limitations of appeal from review board decision].
1991, c. 43, s. 4; 2005, c. 22, s. 28.
[annotation(s) added]

CCC (CanLII), (DOJ)


Note up: 672.82(1), (1.1) and (2)

Disposition by Review Board

672.83 (1) At a hearing held pursuant to section 672.81 [mandatory 12 month review of dispositions] or 672.82 [discretionary review of dispositions], the Review Board shall, except where a determination is made under subsection 672.48(1) [Review Board to determine fitness] that the accused is fit to stand trial, review the disposition made in respect of the accused and make any other disposition that the Review Board considers to be appropriate in the circumstances.
(2) [Repealed, 2005, c. 22, s. 29]
1991, c. 43, s. 4; 1997, c. 18, s. 90; 2005, c. 22, ss. 29, 42(F).
[annotation(s) added]

CCC (CanLII), (DOJ)


Note up: 672.83(1)

Review of finding — high-risk accused

672.84 (1) If a Review Board holds a hearing under section 672.81 [mandatory 12 month review of dispositions] or 672.82 [discretionary review of dispositions] in respect of a high-risk accused, it shall, on the basis of any relevant information, including disposition information as defined in subsection 672.51(1) [definition of disposition information] and an assessment report made under an assessment ordered under paragraph 672.121(c) [review board may order assessment – determine high-risk accused], if it is satisfied that there is not a substantial likelihood that the accused  — whether found to be a high-risk accused under paragraph 672.64(1)(a) [finding re high-risk accused – requirements – endanger life] or (b) [finding re high-risk accused – brutal nature]  —  will use violence that could endanger the life or safety of another person, refer the finding for review to the superior court of criminal jurisdiction.

Review of conditions

(2) If the Review Board is not so satisfied, it shall review the conditions of detention imposed under paragraph 672.54(c) [order of detention to a hospital], subject to the restrictions set out in subsection 672.64(3) [detention of high-risk accused].

Review of finding by court

(3) If the Review Board refers the finding to the superior court of criminal jurisdiction for review, the court shall, at the conclusion of a hearing, revoke the finding if the court is satisfied that there is not a substantial likelihood that the accused will use violence that could endanger the life or safety of another person, in which case the court or the Review Board shall make a disposition under any of paragraphs 672.54(a) to (c) [absolute discharge – review board – circumstances].

Hearing and disposition

(4) Any disposition referred to in subsection (3) [high-risk accused – review] is subject to sections 672.45 to 672.47 [certain provisions re NCR disposition hearings] as if the revocation is a verdict.

Review of conditions

(5) If the court does not revoke the finding, it shall immediately send to the Review Board, in original or copied form, a transcript of the hearing, any other document or information related to the hearing, and all exhibits filed with it, if the transcript, document, information or exhibits are in its possession. The Review Board shall, as soon as practicable but not later than 45 days after the day on which the court decides not to revoke the finding, hold a hearing and review the conditions of detention imposed under paragraph 672.54(c) [order of detention to a hospital], subject to the restrictions set out in subsection 672.64(3) [detention of high-risk accused].

Appeal

(6) A decision under subsection (1) [review of finding – high-risk accused – requirements] about referring the finding to the court for review and a decision under subsection (3) [high-risk accused – review] about revoking the finding are deemed to be dispositions for the purpose of sections 672.72 to 672.78 [review board — appeals].
1991, c. 43, s. 4; 2005, c. 22, s. 30; 2014, c. 6, s. 16.
[annotation(s) added]

CCC (CanLII), (DOJ)


Note up: 672.84(1), (2), (3), (4), (5), and (6)


Defined terms: "assessment" (s. 672.1(1)), "high-risk accused" (s. 672.1(1)), and "Review Board" (s. 672.1(1))