|s. 162 of the Crim. Code|
|Election / Plea|
summary proceedings must initiate within 6 months of the offence (786(2))
Sup. Court w/ Jury (*)
|Types of Release||Release by Officer, Officer-in-charge, or Judge|
|Avail. Disp.||Discharge (730)|
Conditional Sentence (742.1)
|Maximum||six months jail and/or a $5,000 fine|
|Avail. Disp.||same as summary|
|Maximum||5 years incarceration|
- 1 Overview
- 2 Offence Wording
- 3 Proof of the Offence
- 4 Interpretation of the Offence
- 5 Participation of Third Parties
- 6 Sentencing Principles and Ranges
- 7 Ancillary Sentencing Orders
- 8 History
- 9 See Also
Offences relating to voyeurism are found in Part V of the Criminal Code relating to "Sexual Offences, Public Morals and Disorderly Conduct".
|Crown Election||Defence Election|
|s. 162 [voyeurism]||Hybrid Offence(s)||Yes||Yes, if Crown proceeds by Indictment|
On Attendance Notice
On a Promise to Appear
Undertaking or Recognizance
a Judge or Justice
on a PTA, Undertaking or Recog.
|Direct to Attend |
for Fingerprints, etc.
Identification of Criminals Act
s. 2 ID Crim. Act
When charged under s. 162, the accused can be given an attendance notice without arrest under s. 496 or a summons. If arrested, he can be released by the arresting officer under s. 497 on an attendance notice or by an officer-in-charge under s. 498 on a promise to appear or recognizance. He can also be released by a justice under s. 515.
If police decide to bring the accused before a Justice pursuant to s. 503, there will be a presumption against bail (i.e. a reverse onus) if the offence, prosecuted by indictment, was committed:
- while at large under s. 515 [bail release], 679 or 680 [release pending appeal or review of appeal] (s. 515(6)(a)(i));
- "for the benefit of, at the direction of, or in association" with a criminal organization (s. 515(6)(a)(ii));
- where the offence involved a firearm, cross-bow, prohibited weapon restricted weapon, prohibited device, ammunition, prohibited ammunition or explosive substance, while the accused was subject to a prohibition order preventing possession of these items (s. 515(6)(a)(viii)); or
- where the accused is not "ordinarily a resident in Canada" (s. 515(6)(b)).
A peace officer who charges a person under s. 162 of the Code can require that person to attend for the taking of fingerprints, photographs or other similar recordings that are used to identify them under the Identification of Criminals Act.
For all criminal or regulatory prosecutions, there is a discretionary general publication ban available on application of the Crown, victim or witness to prohibit the publishing of "any information that could identify the victim or witness" under s. 486.5(1) where it is "necessary" for the "proper administration of justice". Other available publication bans include prohibitions for publishing evidence or other information arising from a bail hearing (s. 517), preliminary inquiry (s. 539) or jury trial (s. 648). There is a mandatory publication ban in all youth prosecutions on information tending to identify young accused under s. 110 of the YCJA or young victims under s. 111 of the YCJA.
Section s. 162 offences permit a judge to order a discretionary publication ban for sexual offences under s. 486.4 that protects "information that could identify the victim or a witness". Where the witness is under the age of 18 or if in relation to a victim, the order is mandatory under s. 486.4(2).
Offences under s. 162 are designated offences eligible for wiretap under s. 183.
See below in Ancillary Sentencing Orders for details on designations relating to sentencing orders.
162. (1) Every one commits an offence who, surreptitiously, observes — including by mechanical or electronic means — or makes a visual recording of a person who is in circumstances that give rise to a reasonable expectation of privacy, if
- (a) the person is in a place in which a person can reasonably be expected to be nude, to expose his or her genital organs or anal region or her breasts, or to be engaged in explicit sexual activity;
- (b) the person is nude, is exposing his or her genital organs or anal region or her breasts, or is engaged in explicit sexual activity, and the observation or recording is done for the purpose of observing or recording a person in such a state or engaged in such an activity; or
- (c) the observation or recording is done for a sexual purpose.
Definition of “visual recording”
(2) In this section, “visual recording” includes a photographic, film or video recording made by any means.
(3) Paragraphs (1)(a) and (b) do not apply to a peace officer who, under the authority of a warrant issued under section 487.01, is carrying out any activity referred to in those paragraphs.
Printing, publication, etc., of voyeuristic recordings
(4) Every one commits an offence who, knowing that a recording was obtained by the commission of an offence under subsection (1), prints, copies, publishes, distributes, circulates, sells, advertises or makes available the recording, or has the recording in his or her possession for the purpose of printing, copying, publishing, distributing, circulating, selling or advertising it or making it available.
(5) Every one who commits an offence under subsection (1) or (4)
- (a) is guilty of an indictable offence and liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding five years; or
- (b) is guilty of an offence punishable on summary conviction.
(6) No person shall be convicted of an offence under this section if the acts that are alleged to constitute the offence serve the public good and do not extend beyond what serves the public good.
Question of law, motives
(7) For the purposes of subsection (6),
- (a) it is a question of law whether an act serves the public good and whether there is evidence that the act alleged goes beyond what serves the public good, but it is a question of fact whether the act does or does not extend beyond what serves the public good; and
- (b) the motives of an accused are irrelevant.
R.S., 1985, c. C-46, s. 162; R.S., 1985, c. 19 (3rd Supp.), s. 4; 2005, c. 32, s. 6.
Proof of the Offence
Proving voyeurism under s. 162(1)(a) [recording place where persons are expected to be nude or engaged in sexual activity] should include:
Proving voyeurism under s. 162(1)(b) [recording nudity or sexual activity] should include:
Proving voyeurism under s. 162(1)(c) [recording made for sexual purpose] should include:
Draft Form of Charges
Interpretation of the Offence
It can be inferred from the accused's possession of copies of a surreptitious recording that he had made the copies.
Distribution under s. 162(4) is considered the most serious of the voyeurism offences.
Photographs taken up the skirt of females who are in public places may amount to an offence of voyeurism.
However, photographs taken a nude beach does not amount to voyeurism.
- R v Keough, 2011 ABQB 48 (CanLII), per Manderscheid J
- R v PD, 2011 ONCJ 133 (CanLII), per Robertson J, at para 56
See R v Rocha, 2012 ABPC 24 (CanLII), per Groves J - guilty plea for up-skirt pictures
see also comments R v Rudiger, 2011 BCSC 1397 (CanLII), per Voith J, at para 91
- R v Lebenfish, 2014 ONCJ 130 (CanLII), per M Green J
Reasonable Expectation of Privacy
Children playing in a public park maintain some expectation of privacy when viewed through a video camera to focus on the genital and buttocks.
What is "reasonably expected" requires "a standard of expectation grounded upon a consideration of all the surrounding circumstances, while also involving an assessment of those circumstances based on common sense and our own everyday life experiences".
Nude or Exposed
There does not need to be actual nudity or exposure. 
Locations determined to be a "place" include:
- The men’s urinal at the accused’s workplace as people were using it;
- The bathroom of a matrimonial home
- An office washroom in which a camera was placed in a wastebasket located between the toilet and the sink that afforded an angled view of the toilet and which recorded a female employee using the washroom
- A clearly marked women’s shower area where the male accused entered as the female complainant was taking a shower;
A restaurant storage room is not a place in which a person can reasonably be expected to be nude.
See Sexual Interference (Offence)#Sexual Purpose
"Prints, copies, publishes, distributes, circulates, sells, advertises or makes available"
See Definition of Terms Relating to Transactions and Transferences
Participation of Third Parties
Certain persons who testify are entitled to make application for the use of testimonial aids: Exclusion of Public (s. 486), Use of a Testimonial Screen (s. 486), Access to Support Person While Testifying (s. 486.1), Close Proximity Video-link Testimony (s. 486.2), Self-Represented Cross-Examination Prohibition Order (s. 486.3), and Witness Security Order (s. 486.7).
A witness, victim or complainant may also request publication bans (s. 486.4, 486.5) and/or a Witness Identity Non-disclosure Order (s. 486.31). See also, Publication Bans, above.
On Finding of Guilt
For any indictable offence with a maximum penalty no less than 5 years (including offences under s. 162), but are not serious personal injury offences, s. 606(4.2) requires that after accepting a guilty plea the judge must inquire whether "any of the victims had advised the prosecutor of their desire to be informed if such an agreement were entered into, and, if so, whether reasonable steps were taken to inform that victim of the agreement". Failing to take reasonable steps at guilty plea requires the prosecutor to "as soon as feasible, take reasonable steps to inform the victim of the agreement and the acceptance of the plea" (s. 606(4.3)).
Under s. 738, a judge must inquire from the Crown before sentencing whether "reasonable steps have been taken to provide the victims with an opportunity to indicate whether they are seeking restitution for their losses and damages".
Under s. 722(2), the judge must inquire "[a]s soon as feasible" before sentencing with the Crown "if reasonable steps have been taken to provide the victim with an opportunity to prepare" a victim impact statement. This will include any person "who has suffered, or is alleged to have suffered, physical or emotional harm, property damage or economic loss" as a result of the offence. Individuals representing a community impacted by the crime may file a statement under s. 722.2.
Sentencing Principles and Ranges
|s. 162 [voyeurism]||Summary Election||six months jail and/or a $5,000 fine|
|s. 162 [voyeurism]||Indictable Election||5 years custody|
Offences under s. 162 are hybrid. If prosecuted by indictment, the maximum penalty is 5 years incarceration. If prosecuted by summary conviction, the maximum penalty is six months jail and/or a $5,000 fine.
These offences have no mandatory minimum penalties.
s. 718.3, 787
All dispositions are available.The judge may order a discharge (s. 730), suspended sentence (s. 731(1)(a)), fine (s. 731(1)(b)), custody (s. 718.3, 787), custody with probation (s. 731(1)(b)), custody with a fine (s. 734), or a conditional sentence (s. 742.1).
There are no statutory requirements that the sentences be consecutive.
The offence of voyeurism is considered a grave intrusion upon the victim's privacy.
The privacy of victims must be protected through ensuring that the sentence includes denunciation and deterrence.
Section 718.01 requires sentencing judges to "give primary consideration to the objectives of denunciation and deterrence" when conduct "involved the abuse of a person under the age of eighteen years". Where the evidence shows that the offender, "in committing the offence, abused a person under the age of eighteen years, shall be deemed to be an aggravating circumstances" under s. 718.2(a)(ii.1). Where the offender is in a "position of trust or authority" in relation to the victim, it will also be aggravating under s. 718.2(a)(iii).
The most relevant offence-based factors in sentencing include:
- events were recorded
- Images were distributed or placed in a location where people could access
- Age of the victim
- Relationship of trust
- Planning and deliberation
- Violence or threats of violence
- Attempts to prevent or obstruct the complainant from reporting the offence
- Attempts to dispose or conceal evidence
- Previous related conviction
- Committed while released on bail
- Location of offence, including the expectation of privacy
- see also: Voyeurism (Sentencing Cases)
As of 2011, there had been no reported decisions where jail was given for a conviction under 162.
R v Muggridge, 2015 CanLII 10931 (NL PC), per Gorman J, at para 52 ("Setting up a device in a washroom to videotape a female employee is not only a gross breach of her privacy, but constitutes a serious criminal offence. It sends a chilling message to women that even the washrooms at their places of employments are not safe. ")
R v Bosomworth, 2015 BCPC 7 (CanLII)(link pending), per Dhillon J, at para 38 ("It is my view that given the times in which we live, where privacy in the public sphere has been eroded by the prevalence of surveillance cameras or the ready deployment of cell phone cameras in public places, the expectation of personal privacy in highly private places must be protected. Members of the public who use the restroom facilities of any bar, restaurant or similar establishment must be assured of their utmost privacy. ")
- Bosomworth, ibid., at para 38("The law must protect that privacy by ensuring a deterrent and denunciatory sentence which sends the message that a criminal record is likely to result if criminal acts involve a serious breach of personal privacy.")
- R v Keough, 2011 ABQB 312 (CanLII), per Manderscheid J at para 218
- Keough, ibid. at para 219
- Keough, ibid. at para 219
Ancillary Sentencing Orders
|DNA Orders||s. 162||
|SOIRA Orders||s. 162||
Note that by function of s. 490.011(2) of the Code, SOIRA orders are not available when sentencing under the Youth Criminal Justice Act
General Sentencing Orders
|Non-communication order while offender in custody (s. 743.21)||any||The judge has the discretion to order that the offender be prohibited "from communicating...with any victim, witness or other person" while in custody except where the judge "considers [it] necessary" to communicate with them.|
|Restitution Orders (s. 738)||any||A discretionary Order is available for things such as the replacement value of the property; the pecuniary damages incurred from harm, expenses fleeing a domestic partner; or certain expenses arising from the commission of an offence under s.402.2 or 403.|
|Victim Fine Surcharge (s. 737)||any||A mandatory surcharge under s. 737 of 30% of any fine order imposed, $100 per summary conviction or $200 per indictable conviction. If the offence occurs on or after October 23, 2013, the order is discretionary based on ability to pay, and the minimum amounts are smaller (15%, $50, or $100).|
General Forfeiture Orders
|Forfeiture of Proceeds of Crime (s. 462.37(1) or (2.01))||any||Where there is a finding of guilt for an indictable offence under the Code or the CDSA in which property is "proceeds of crime" and offence was "committed in relation to that property", the property shall be forfeited to Her Majesty the Queen on application of the Crown.|
|Fine in Lieu of Forfeiture (s. 462.37(3))||any||Where a Court is satisfied an order for the forfeiture of proceeds of crime under s. 462.37(1) or (2.01) can be made, but that property cannot be "made subject to an order", then the Court "may" order a fine in "an amount equal to the value of the property". Failure to pay the fine will result in a default judgement imposing a period of incarceration.|
|Forfeiture of Weapons or Firearms (s. 491)||any||Where there is finding of guilt for an offence where a "weapon, an imitation firearm, a prohibited device, any ammunition, any prohibited ammunition or an explosive substance was used in the commission of [the] offence and that thing has been seized and detained", or "that a person has committed an offence that involves, or the subject-matter of which is, a firearm, a cross-bow, a prohibited weapon, a restricted weapon, a prohibited device, ammunition, prohibited ammunition or an explosive substance has been seized and detained, that the item be an enumerated weapon or related item be connected to the offence", then there will be a mandatory forfeiture order. However, under s. 491(2), if the lawful owner "was not a party to the offence" and the judge has "no reasonable grounds to believe that the thing would or might be used in the commission of an offence", then it should be returned to the lawful owner.|
|Forfeiture of Offence-related Property (s. 490.1)||any||Where there is a finding of guilt for an indictable offence, "any property is offence-related property" where (a) by means or in respect of which an indictable offence under this Act or the Corruption of Foreign Public Officials Act is committed, (b) that is used in any manner in connection with the commission of such an offence, or (c) that is intended to be used for committing such an offence". Such property is to be forfeited to Her Majesty in right of the province.|
Voyeurism came into force in 2005.
- see 2005, c. 32, s. 6.