Abduction of a Young Person (Offence)

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Abduction of a Young Person
s. 273.3, 280, 281, 282 and 283 of the Crim. Code
Election / Plea
Crown Election Hybrid / Indictable
summary proceedings must initiate within 6 months of the offence (786(2))
Jurisdiction Prov. Court

Sup. Court w/ Jury (*)
Sup. Court w/ Judge-alone (*)

* Must be indictable. Preliminary inquiry also available.
Types of Release Release by Officer, Officer-in-Charge, or Judge (varies on charge)
Summary Dispositions
Avail. Disp. Discharge (730)

Suspended Sentence (731(1)(a))
Fine (734)
Fine + Probation (731(1)(b))
Jail (718.3, 787)
Jail + Probation (731(1)(b))
Jail + Fine (734)

Conditional Sentence (742.1)
Minimum None
Maximum six months jail and/or a $5,000 fine
Indictable Dispositions
Avail. Disp. Discharge (730)

Suspended Sentence (731(1)(a))
Fine (734)
Fine + Probation (731(1)(b))
Jail (718.3, 787)
Jail + Probation (731(1)(b))
Jail + Fine (734)
Conditional Sentence (742.1)*

(* varies)
Minimum None
Maximum 5 or 10 years incarceration
Reference
Offence Elements
Sentence Digests

Overview

There are four forms of the offence of abduction, there is removal of child from Canada (273.3), abduction of a person under 16 (280), abduction of a person under 14 (281), parental abduction contrary to a custody order (282), and parental abduction (283). The first two offences of abduction of person under 16 (280) and 14 (281) concern the unlawful taking of a child from the parent or guardian. The latter two offences concern where a parent or guardian unlawfully takes a child from a person who has lawful right to possess the child. They are all found in Part VIII of the Criminal Code relating to "Offences Against the Person and Reputation".

Pleadings

Offence
Section
Offence
Type
Crown Election Defence Election
s. 536(2)
273.3 [removal of child from Canada],
282 [parental abduction contrary to order] and
283 [parental abduction]
Hybrid Offence(s) Yes Yes, if Crown proceeds by Indictment
280 [abduction of a person under 16]
and 281 [abduction of a person under 14]
Indictable Offence(s) No Yes

Offences under s. 280 and 281 are straight indictable. There is a Defence election of Court under s. 536(2).

Offences under s. 273.3, 282 and 283 are hybrid with a Crown election. If prosecuted by indictment, there is a Defence election of Court under s. 536(2).

Release

Offence(s) Attendance Notice
Without Arrest

s. 496
Summons
Without Arrest
s. 497
Release By
Arresting Officer
On Attendance Notice
s. 497
Release By
Officer-in-Charge
On a Promise to Appear
Undertaking or Recognizance
s. 498
Release By
a Judge or Justice
on a PTA, Undertaking or Recog.

s. 515
Direct to Attend
for Fingerprints, etc.
Identification of Criminals Act
s. 273.3 and 280 OK Symbol.png OK Symbol.png OK Symbol.png OK Symbol.png OK Symbol.png OK Symbol.png
s. 281 X Mark Symbol.png X Mark Symbol.png X Mark Symbol.png X Mark Symbol.png OK Symbol.png OK Symbol.png


When charged under s. 273.3 and 280, the accused cannot be given an attendance notice or a summons without arrest, nor can he be released by an arresting officer. He can be released by an officer-in-charge under s. 498 on a promise to appear or recognizance. He can also be released by a justice under s. 515. A youth will be subject to a maximum penalty of 3 years under s. 42(15) of the YCJA and can be given an attendance notice without arrest under s. 496 or a summons and if arrested, can be released by the arresting officer under s. 497 on a attendance notice or by an officer-in-charge under s. 498 on a promise to appear or recognizance. The youth can also be released by a justice under s. 515.

When charged under s. 281, the accused must be held by police when arrested, they must be brought before a judge or justice under s. 503 and are only to be released by an order of a judge or justice under s. 515. A youth will be subject to a maximum penalty of 3 years under s. 42(15) of the YCJA and can be given an attendance notice without arrest under s. 496 or a summons and if arrested, can be released by the arresting officer under s. 497 on a attendance notice or by an officer-in-charge under s. 498 on a promise to appear or recognizance. The youth can also be released by a justice under s. 515.

When charged under s. 282 and 283, the accused can be given an attendance notice without arrest under s. 496 or a summons. If arrested, he can be released by the arresting officer under s. 497 on a attendance notice or by an officer-in-charge under s. 498 on a promise to appear or recognizance. He can also be released by a justice under s. 515.

A peace officer who charges a person under s. 273.3, 280, 281, 282 or 283 of the Code can use a release mechanism to require that person to attend for the taking of fingerprints, photographs or other similar processes used to identify them under the Identification of Criminals Act.

Publication Orders
For all offences there is a discretionary general publication ban available on application of the Crown, victim or witness to prohibit the publishing of "any information that could identify the victim or witness" under s. 486.5(1) where it is "necessary" for the "proper administration of justice". Other available publication bans include prohibitions for publishing evidence or other information arising from a bail hearing (s. 517), preliminary inquiry (s. 539) or jury trial (s. 648). There is a mandatory publication ban in all youth prosecutions on information tending to identify young accused under s. 110 of the YCJA or young victim under s. 111 of the YCJA.

Offence Designations
Offences under s. 280, 281, 282, and 283 are designated offences eligible for wiretap under s. 183.

Offences under s. 273.3., 280, and 281 are "designated" offences under s. 752 for the purpose of dangerous offender applications.

Offences under 283(2) require the consent of the Attorney General to prosecute.

Offence Wording

Removal of child from Canada
273.3 (1) No person shall do anything for the purpose of removing from Canada a person who is ordinarily resident in Canada and who is

(a) under the age of 16 years, with the intention that an act be committed outside Canada that if it were committed in Canada would be an offence against section 151 or 152 or subsection 160(3) or 173(2) in respect of that person;
(b) 16 years of age or more but under the age of eighteen years, with the intention that an act be committed outside Canada that if it were committed in Canada would be an offence against section 153 in respect of that person;
(c) under the age of eighteen years, with the intention that an act be committed outside Canada that if it were committed in Canada would be an offence against section 155 or 159, subsection 160(2) or section 170, 171, 267, 268, 269, 271, 272 or 273 in respect of that person; or
(d) under the age of 18 years, with the intention that an act be committed outside Canada that, if it were committed in Canada, would be an offence against section 293.1 in respect of that person or under the age of 16 years, with the intention that an act be committed outside Canada that, if it were committed in Canada, would be an offence against section 293.2 in respect of that person.

Punishment
(2) Every person who contravenes this section is guilty of

(a) an indictable offence and is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding five years; or
(b) an offence punishable on summary conviction.

1993, c. 45, s. 3; 1997, c. 18, s. 13; 2008, c. 6, s. 54; 2015, c. 29, s. 8.


CCC

Abduction of person under sixteen
280. (1) Every one who, without lawful authority, takes or causes to be taken an unmarried person under the age of sixteen years out of the possession of and against the will of the parent or guardian of that person or of any other person who has the lawful care or charge of that person is guilty of an indictable offence and liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding five years.
...
R.S., c. C-34, s. 249; 1980-81-82-83, c. 125, s. 20.


CCC

Abduction of person under fourteen
281. Every one who, not being the parent, guardian or person having the lawful care or charge of a person under the age of fourteen years, unlawfully takes, entices away, conceals, detains, receives or harbours that person with intent to deprive a parent or guardian, or any other person who has the lawful care or charge of that person, of the possession of that person is guilty of an indictable offence and liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding ten years.
R.S., c. C-34, s. 250; 1980-81-82-83, c. 125, s. 20.


CCC

Abduction in contravention of custody order
282. (1) Every one who, being the parent, guardian or person having the lawful care or charge of a person under the age of fourteen years, takes, entices away, conceals, detains, receives or harbours that person, in contravention of the custody provisions of a custody order in relation to that person made by a court anywhere in Canada, with intent to deprive a parent or guardian, or any other person who has the lawful care or charge of that person, of the possession of that person is guilty of

(a) an indictable offence and is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding ten years; or
(b) an offence punishable on summary conviction.

...
R.S., 1985, c. C-46, s. 282; 1993, c. 45, s. 4.


CCC

Abduction
283. (1) Every one who, being the parent, guardian or person having the lawful care or charge of a person under the age of fourteen years, takes, entices away, conceals, detains, receives or harbours that person, whether or not there is a custody order in relation to that person made by a court anywhere in Canada, with intent to deprive a parent or guardian, or any other person who has the lawful care or charge of that person, of the possession of that person, is guilty of

(a) an indictable offence and is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding ten years; or
(b) an offence punishable on summary conviction.

R.S., 1985, c. C-46, s. 283; 1993, c. 45, s. 5.


CCC

Proof of the Offence

Proving Removal of child from Canada under s. 273.3 should include:

  1. identity of accused as culprit
  2. date and time of incident
  3. jurisdiction (incl. region and province)
  4. the culprit did something "for the purpose of removing a person from Canada
  5. the person is "ordinarily resident in Canada"
  6. if the person is under the age of 16 years, the intention of the action was to commit an offence under s. 151, 152, 160(3) or 173(2) with respect to the person;
  7. if the person is over the age of 16 years but under 18 years, the intention of the action was to commit an offence under s. 153 with respect to the person;
  8. if the person is under 18 years, the intention of the action was to commit an offence under s. 155, 159, 160(2), 170, 171, 267, 268, 269, 271, 272 or 273 with respect to the person;

Proving abduction under 16 years old under s. 280 should include:

  1. identity of accused as culprit
  2. date and time of incident
  3. jurisdiction (incl. region and province)
  4. the culprit "takes or causes to be taken" a young person "out of the possession of and against the will of" an adult;
  5. the adult is a parent, guardian, or a "person who has the lawful care or charge" of the young person;
  6. the culprit did not have lawful authority to take or cause the person to be taken;
  7. the young person is under the age of 16; and
  8. the young person is unmarried

Proving abduction under 14 years old under s. 281 should include:[1]

  1. identity of accused as culprit
  2. date and time of incident
  3. jurisdiction (incl. region and province)
  4. the culprit "takes, entices away, conceals, detains, receives or harbours" a young person;
  5. the culprit does so with the intent to deprive an adult of possession that young person;
  6. the adult is a "parent or guardian, or any other person who has the lawful care or charge of" the young person;
  7. the culprit is not a parent, guardian or person having the lawful care or charge of a young person;
  8. the culprit did not have lawful authority to act; and
  9. the young person is under the age of 14

Proving Parental Abduction Contrary to a Custody Order under s. 282 should include:

  1. identity of accused as culprit
  2. date and time of incident
  3. jurisdiction (incl. region and province)
  4. the culprit is a "parent, guardian or person having the lawful care or charge of" a young person;
  5. the accuse "takes, entices away, conceals, detains, receives or harbours" the young person;
  6. the act contravenes a custody provision of a custody order in relation to the young person;
  7. the custody order was made by a court anywhere in Canada;
  8. the act was done with "intent to deprive a parent or guardian, or any other person who has the lawful care or charge" of the young person, of possession of that young person; and
  9. the young person is under the age of 14.

Proving Parental Abduction under s. 283 should include:

  1. identity of accused as culprit
  2. date and time of incident
  3. jurisdiction (incl. region and province)
  4. the culprit is a parent, guardian, or custodian of the victim;
  5. the victim is under the age of 14;
  6. the culprit "unlawfully takes, entices away, conceals, detains, receives or harbours" the victim;
  7. the culprit "[intends] to deprive a parent or guardian or any other person who has the lawful care or charge of" the victim; and
  8. consent of the Attorney General to prosecute

Interpretation of the Offence

The purpose of the offence is "to prevent one parent from intentionally interfering with the other parent's lawful right to custody of their child".[2]

The actus reus is made out by nothing more than "preventing a parent, guardian, or other person having lawful care or charge of the child, from exercising control over that child."[3]

As with any offence, the motive or reason for taking a child is not relevant except where is considered as part of a defence.[4] It is not necessary for the Crown to prove whether there was any coercion or persuasion of the young person.[5]

Section 30 of the Interpretation Act determines age for the purpose of this section.[6] The term "child" is not defined within the Code.[7] Section 658 provides methods of proof.[8]

Section 4(3) of the Evidence Act removes the spousal incompetence rule for all abduction offences between s. 280 and 283.

The presence of the word "unlawfully" does not add any requirement of proof. It is effectively "verbal suprplusage".[9]

  1. R v Marini, 2014 BCPC 3 (CanLII) at para 20
  2. R v Sadeghi-Jebelli, 2013 ONCA 747 (CanLII), at para 33
  3. R v Dawson, 1996 CanLII 150 (SCC), [1996] 3 SCR 783
  4. R v FWB, 2013 SKPC 3 (CanLII) at para 77
    R v Chartrand, 1994 CanLII 53 (SCC), [1994] 2 SCR 864, para 52 per L'Heureux-Dube J (“Whether the accused may have had an innocent motive, or intended to interfere with possession for a very short period of time is beside the point.”)
  5. R v Vokey; R v Defouw, 2005 BCCA 498 (CanLII) at para 26
    R v Langevin and LaPensee (1962), 1962 CanLII 228 (ON CA), 38 C.R. 421 (Ont.CA.)
  6. See s. 30 of the IA: "A person is deemed not to have attained a specified number of years of age until the commencement of the anniversary, of the same number, of the day of that person’s birth."
  7. see s. 214 which had the definition until repealed in 2002
  8. See Jurisdiction_of_the_Courts#Young_Persons
  9. Chartrand

Parent, Guardian, or Person with Care of Charge

A "parent" is not defined in the Code.

280.
...
Definition of “guardian”
(2) In this section and sections 281 to 283, “guardian” includes any person who has in law or in fact the custody or control of another person.
R.S., c. C-34, s. 249; 1980-81-82-83, c. 125, s. 20.


CCC

A parent does not have to have "lawful care or charge" to be convicted.[1]

  1. R v Van Herk, 1984 ABCA 167 (CanLII)

"Lawful Authority"

"Lawful authority" provides an justification for those who take children from the control of their parent or guardian for their protection. Th purpose of this justification is to protect good Samaritans.[1]

  1. R v Chartrand, 1994 CanLII 53 (SCC), [1994] 2 SCR 864 at para 40 per L'Heureux-Dube J

"Possession"

Possession refers to "the ability of the parent to exercise his or her right to control over the child."[1]

  1. R v Vokey; R v Defouw, 2005 BCCA 498 (CanLII) at para 26

"Takes", "Entices Away", "Conceals", "Detains", "Receives" or "Harbours"

"Takes" or "causes to be taken" requires some act of the accused to induce or persuade the young person, if not physical force. A young person simply seeking refuge with the accused is not sufficient.[1]

The word "should be interpreted broadly, in a manner consistent with the purpose" of the offence. Taking "need not be solely a singular or discrete act; it may continue for some time"[2]

"Detains" refers to the "intentional withholding of the child from the wife which had the effect of depriving her of her custodial rights".[3]

  1. R v Flick, 2005 BCCA 499 (CanLII), at para 24 ("The fact that the girl knew she could find some refuge with the accused does not in my opinion constitute an inducement on his part.")
  2. Sadeghi-Jebelli, 2013 ONCA 747 (CanLII), at para 33
  3. R v Bigelow, 1982 CanLII 2046 (ON CA)

"Custody Order"

282.
...
Where no belief in validity of custody order
(2) Where a count charges an offence under subsection (1) and the offence is not proven only because the accused did not believe that there was a valid custody order but the evidence does prove an offence under section 283, the accused may be convicted of an offence under section 283.
R.S., 1985, c. C-46, s. 282; 1993, c. 45, s. 4.


CCC

Mere breach of an order is not sufficient to prove the offence. There must be an intent to deprive a designated person possession of the young person.[1]

  1. R v Muirhead, 2008 PESCAD 5 (CanLII)

Consent of Attorney General

Prosecutions under s. 283 for Parental Abduction requires written consent of the Attorney General.

283
...
Consent required
(2) No proceedings may be commenced under subsection (1) without the consent of the Attorney General or counsel instructed by him for that purpose.
R.S., 1985, c. C-46, s. 283; 1993, c. 45, s. 5.


CCC

Defences

See also: Defences

The statutory defence of duress is excluded by s. 17 from applying to offences under s. 280 to 283.

Consent

Defence
284. No one shall be found guilty of an offence under sections 281 to 283 if he establishes that the taking, enticing away, concealing, detaining, receiving or harbouring of any young person was done with the consent of the parent, guardian or other person having the lawful possession, care or charge of that young person.
1980-81-82-83, c. 125, s. 20.


CCC

Where the accused is a parent, guardian or other person with lawful possession of the child, does not mean they can get consent from themselves. Consent must be from a third party who meets the definition.[1]

No defence
286. In proceedings in respect of an offence under sections 280 to 283, it is not a defence to any charge that a young person consented to or suggested any conduct of the accused.
1980-81-82-83, c. 125, s. 20.


CCC

  1. R v Dawson, 1996 CanLII 150 (SCC), [1996] 3 SCR 783

Safety

Defence
285. No one shall be found guilty of an offence under sections 280 to 283 if the court is satisfied that the taking, enticing away, concealing, detaining, receiving or harbouring of any young person was necessary to protect the young person from danger of imminent harm or if the person charged with the offence was escaping from danger of imminent harm.
R.S., 1985, c. C-46, s. 285; 1993, c. 45, s. 6.


CCC

The impugned act must have sufficient connection to the harm to be avoided to justify the act.[1]

The accused may rely upon an honest but mistaken belief as long as the act was objectively necessary based on the understanding of the accused at the time.[2]

See also Duress.

  1. R v Mendez, 1997 CanLII 432 (ON CA)
  2. R v Adams, 1993 CanLII 8537 (ON CA)

Mistaken Belief

In relation to an offence contrary to a custody order, it is a valid defence for the accused to hae the mistaken belief that the order [1]

  1. R v Ilczyszyn (1988), 45 C.C.C (3d) 91, 5 W.C.B. (2d) 351 (Ont. C.A.) (*no link)
    R v Hammerbeck, 1991 CanLII 5762 (BC CA)

Participation of Third Parties

See also: Role of the Victim and Third Parties and Testimonial Aids for Young, Disabled or Vulnerable Witnesses

Testimonial Aids
Certain persons who testify are entitled to make application for the use of testimonial aids: Exclusion of Public (s. 486), Use of a Testimonial Screen (s. 486), Access to Support Person While Testifying (s. 486.1), Close Proximity Video-link Testimony (s. 486.2), Self-Represented Cross-Examination Prohibition Order (s. 486.3), and Witness Security Order (s. 486.7).

A witness, victim or complainant may also request publication bans (s. 486.4, 486.5) and/or a Witness Identity Non-disclosure Order (s. 486.31). See also, Publication Bans, above.

On Finding of Guilt
For any indictable offence with a maximum penalty no less than 5 years (including offences under s. 273.3., 280, 281, 282 and 283), but are not serious personal injury offences, s. 606(4.2) requires that after accepting a guilty plea the judge must inquire whether "any of the victims had advised the prosecutor of their desire to be informed if such an agreement were entered into, and, if so, whether reasonable steps were taken to inform that victim of the agreement". Failing to take reasonable steps at guilty plea requires the prosecutor to "as soon as feasible, take reasonable steps to inform the victim of the agreement and the acceptance of the plea" (s. 606(4.3)).

Under s. 738, a judge must inquire from the Crown before sentencing whether "reasonable steps have been taken to provide the victims with an opportunity to indicate whether they are seeking restitution for their losses and damages".

Under s. 722(2), the judge must inquire "[a]s soon as feasible" before sentencing with the Crown "if reasonable steps have been taken to provide the victim with an opportunity to prepare" a victim impact statement. This will include any person "who has suffered, or is alleged to have suffered, physical or emotional harm, property damage or economic loss" as a result of the offence. Individuals representing a community impacted by the crime may file a statement under s. 722.2.

Sentencing Principles and Ranges

See also: Purpose and Principles of Sentencing, Sentencing Factors Relating to the Offender, and Sentencing Factors Relating to the Offence

Sentencing Profile

Maximum Penalties

Offence(s) Crown
Election
Maximum Penalty
273.3 [removal of child from Canada]
282 [Abduction in contravention of custody order] or
283 [abduction by parent or guardian of person under 14]
Summary Election six months jail and/or a $5,000 fine
273.3 [removal of child from Canada] Indictable Election 5 years custody
280 [Abduction of person under sixteen] N/A 5 years custody
281 [Abduction of person under fourteen] N/A 10 years custody
282 [Abduction in contravention of custody order] or
283 [abduction by parent or guardian of person under 14]
Indictment Election 10 years custody

Offences under s. 280 [Abduction of person under sixteen] or 281 [Abduction of person under fourteen] are straight indictable. The maximum penalty is 5 years incarceration [s. 280] or 10 years incarceration [s. 281].

Offences under s. 282 [Abduction in contravention of custody order] or 283 [abduction by parent or guardian of person under 14] are hybrid. If prosecuted by indictment, the maximum penalty is 10 years incarceration. If prosecuted by summary conviction, the maximum penalty is six months jail and/or a $5,000 fine.

Minimum Penalties
These offences have no mandatory minimum penalties.

Available Dispositions

Offence(s) Crown
Election
Discharge
s. 730
Suspended
Sentence

s. 731(1)(a)
Stand-alone
Fine

s. 731(1)(b)
Custody
s. 718.3, 787
Custody and
Probation
s. 731(1)(b)
Custody and
Fine
s. 734
Conditional
Sentence
(CSO)
s. 742.1
s. 273.3 [removal of child from Canada],
283 [parental abduction]
any OK Symbol.png OK Symbol.png OK Symbol.png OK Symbol.png OK Symbol.png OK Symbol.png OK Symbol.png
s. 280 [abduction of a person under 16],
281 [abduction of a person under 14]
N/A OK Symbol.png OK Symbol.png OK Symbol.png OK Symbol.png OK Symbol.png OK Symbol.png X Mark Symbol.png
s. 282 [parental abduction contrary to order] Summary OK Symbol.png OK Symbol.png OK Symbol.png OK Symbol.png OK Symbol.png OK Symbol.png OK Symbol.png
s. 282 Indictable OK Symbol.png OK Symbol.png OK Symbol.png OK Symbol.png OK Symbol.png OK Symbol.png X Mark Symbol.png

Offences under s. 281 are ineligible for a conditional sentence order, when prosecuted by indictment, as the offence is enumerated as ineligible under s. 742.1(f).

Offences under s. 282 or 283 are ineligible for a conditional sentence order under s. 742.1(e), when (i) prosecuted by way of indictment and where the maximum penalty is 10 years incarceration, that resulted in "bodily harm", "involved the import, export, trafficking or production of drugs", or "involved the use of a weapon".

Offences under s. 282 or 283, that occur between November 30, 2007 and November 19, 2012, are not eligible for a conditional sentence as they are designated "serious personal injury" offences as it is an enumerated offence under under s. 752(b). It will also not be available if the offence was committed in relation to a criminal organization or terrorism offence committed on Nov 30, 2007 or afterwards.

Consecutive Sentences
There are no statutory requirements that the sentences be consecutive.

Principles

Section 718.01 requires sentencing judges to "give primary consideration to the objectives of denunciation and deterrence" when conduct "involved the abuse of a person under the age of eighteen years". Where the evidence shows that the offender, "in committing the offence, abused a person under the age of eighteen years, shall be deemed to be an aggravating circumstances" under s. 718.2(a)(ii.1). Where the offender is in a "position of trust or authority" in relation to the victim, it will also be aggravating under s. 718.2(a)(iii).

Ranges

see also: Abduction of a Young Person (Sentencing Cases)


Ancillary Sentencing Orders

See also: Ancillary Orders

Offence-specific Orders

Order Conviction Description
DNA Orders s. 273.3(2), 280, 281, 282 or 283
SOIRA Orders s. 273.3(2), 280 or 281
  • On conviction under s. 273.3(2), as listed under s. 490.011(a), a SOIRA Order is mandatory as "designated offence" under s. 490.011(1)(a) regardless of Crown election
      • If there is a concurrent or prior conviction for a designated offence, the duration is life (s. 490.012(3))
      • Otherwise, the duration is 10 years as the offence was "prosecuted summarily or if the maximum term of imprisonment for the offence is two or five years".
      • There is an option for early termination under s. 490.015 available after 5 years (if 10 year order) or 20 years (if life order)

Note that by function of s. 490.011(2) of the Code, SOIRA orders are not available when sentencing under the Youth Criminal Justice Act

  • On conviction under s. 280 or 281, as listed under s. 490.011(b), a SOIRA Order shall be ordered under s. 490.011(1)(b), on application of the prosecutor, "if the prosecutor establishes beyond a reasonable doubt that the person committed the offence with the intent to commit" any SOIRA designated offence listed under s. 490.011(a), (c), (c.1), or (d):
      • If there is a concurrent or prior conviction for a designated offence listed under s. 490.013(2)(a), (c), (c.1) or (d), the duration is life (s. 490.012(3))
      • Otherwise, the duration is 10 years where the offence has been "prosecuted summarily or if the maximum term of imprisonment for the offence is two or five years" (s. 490.013(2)(a))) or 20 years where the offence has a "maximum term of imprisonment for the offence is 10 or 14 years" (s. 490.013(2)(b)).
      • There is an option for early termination under s. 490.015 available after 5 years (if 10 year order), 10 years (if 20 year order), or 20 year (if life order).

Note that by function of s. 490.011(2) of the Code, SOIRA orders are not available when sentencing under the Youth Criminal Justice Act

Weapons Prohibition Orders s. 280, 281, 282 or 283
  • if convicted for s. 280 or 281, the prohibition is discretionary under s. 110
  • if convicted for s. 282 or 283, the prohibition is mandatory under s. 109 on an indictable election and discretionary under s. 110 on a summary election
Section 161 Orders s. 280 or 281
  • If convicted under s. 280 or 281, the judge may make discretionary 161 Order.
Delayed Parole Order s. 273.3
  • Periods of imprisonment of 2 years or more for convictions under s. 273.3 are eligible for delayed parole order under s. 743.6(1) requiring the offender to serve at least "one half of the sentence or ten years, whichever is less", "where denunciation of the offence or the objective of specific or general deterrence so requires".

General Sentencing Orders

Order Conviction Description
Non-communication order while offender in custody (s. 743.21) any The judge has discretion to order that the offender be prohibited "from communicating...with any victim, witness or other person" while in custody except where the judge "considers [it] necessary" to communicate with them.
Restitution Orders (s. 738) any A discretionary Order is available for things such as the replacement value of the property; the pecuniary damages incurred from harm, expenses fleeing a domestic partner; or certain expenses arising from the commission of an offence under s.402.2 or 403.
Victim Fine Surcharge (s. 737) any A mandatory surcharge under s. 737 of 30% of any fine order imposed, $100 per summary conviction or $200 per indictable conviction. If offence occurs on or after October 23, 2013, the order is discretionary based on ability to pay and the minimum amounts are smaller (15%, $50, or $100).

General Forfeiture Orders

Forfeiture Conviction Description
Forfeiture of Proceeds of Crime (s. 462.37(1) or (2.01)) any Where there is a finding of guilt for an indictable offence under the Code or the CDSA in which property is "proceeds of crime" and offence was "committed in relation to that property", the property shall be forfeited to Her Majesty the Queen on application of the Crown.
Fine in Lieu of Forfeiture (s. 462.37(3)) any Where a Court is satisfied an order for the forfeiture of proceeds of crime under s. 462.37(!) or (2.01) can be made, but that property cannot be "made subject to an order", then the Court "may" order a fine in "an amount equal to the value of the property". Failure to pay the fine will result in a default judgement imposing a period of incarceration.
Forfeiture of Weapons or Firearms (s. 491) any Where there is finding of guilt for an offence where a "weapon, an imitation firearm, a prohibited device, any ammunition, any prohibited ammunition or an explosive substance was used in the commission of [the] offence and that thing has been seized and detained", or "that a person has committed an offence that involves, or the subject-matter of which is, a firearm, a cross-bow, a prohibited weapon, a restricted weapon, a prohibited device, ammunition, prohibited ammunition or an explosive substance has been seized and detained, that the item be an enumerated weapon or related item be connected to the offence", then there will be a mandatory forfeiture order. However, under s. 491(2), if the lawful owner "was not a party to the offence" and the judge has "no reasonable grounds to believe that the thing would or might be used in the commission of an offence", then it should be returned to the lawful owner.
Forfeiture of Offence-related Property (s. 490.1) any Where there is a finding of guilt for an indictable offence, "any property is offence-related property" where (a) by means or in respect of which an indictable offence under this Act or the Corruption of Foreign Public Officials Act is committed, (b) that is used in any manner in connection with the commission of such an offence, or (c) that is intended to be used for committing such an offence". Such property is to be forfeited to Her Majesty in right of the province.

History

See also: List of Criminal Code Amendments

The predecessor to s. 381 was the offence of child stealing under s. 284 of the original Criminal Code from 1892. In 1906, it was revised to child abduction. Minor revisions were made in 1953, 1970, 1982, and 1985.[1]

Section 273.3

Prior to July 17, 2015, s. 273.3 read:

Removal of child from Canada
273.3 (1) No person shall do anything for the purpose of removing from Canada a person who is ordinarily resident in Canada and who is

(a) under the age of 16 years, with the intention that an act be committed outside Canada that if it were committed in Canada would be an offence against section 151 or 152 or subsection 160(3) or 173(2) in respect of that person;
(b) 16 years of age or more but under the age of eighteen years, with the intention that an act be committed outside Canada that if it were committed in Canada would be an offence against section 153 in respect of that person; or
(c) under the age of eighteen years, with the intention that an act be committed outside Canada that if it were committed in Canada would be an offence against section 155 or 159, subsection 160(2) or section 170, 171, 267, 268, 269, 271, 272 or 273 in respect of that person.

...
1993, c. 45, s. 3; 1997, c. 18, s. 13; 2008, c. 6, s. 54.


CCC

Prior to July 2, 2008, the section read:

Removal of child from Canada
273.3 (1) No person shall do anything for the purpose of removing from Canada a person who is ordinarily resident in Canada and who is

(a) under the age of fourteen years, with the intention that an act be committed outside Canada that if it were committed in Canada would be an offence against section 151 or 152 or subsection 160(3) or 173(2) in respect of that person;
(b) fourteen years of age or more but under the age of eighteen years, with the intention that an act be committed outside Canada that if it were committed in Canada would be an offence against section 153 in respect of that person; or
(c) under the age of eighteen years, with the intention that an act be committed outside Canada that if it were committed in Canada would be an offence against section 155 or 159, subsection 160(2) or section 170, 171, 267, 268, 269, 271, 272 or 273 in respect of that person.

...
1993, c. 45, s. 3; 1997, c. 18, s. 13.


  1. R v Chartrand, 1994 CanLII 53 (SCC), [1994] 2 SCR 864

See Also

Related Offences

References